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Concept 17: Elimination

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created 6 weeks ago by mindy0118
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Elimination

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1

Elimination

The removal, clearance, or separation of matter

2

Bowel Elimination

The passage of stool through the intestinal tract and dispelling the stool by means of intestinal smooth muscle contraction

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Urinary Elimination

The passage of urine through the urinary tract by means of the urinary sphincter and urethra

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Defecation

Bowel

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Micturition or Urination

Urine

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Continence

The purposeful control of urinary or fecal elimination

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Bowel movements

Stool or feces

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Anuria

Absence of urine

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Dysuria

Painful urination

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Polyuria

Multiple episodes of urination

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Urinary Frequency

Multiple episodes of urination with little urine produced in a short period of time

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Urinary Hesitancy

The urge to urinate exists, but the person has difficulty starting the urine stream

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Glomerular Filtration

The beginning of urine formation

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Tubular Reabsorption

Renal tubules reabsorb most of the water, electrolytes, and other necessary elements back into the blood

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Tubular Secretion,

Involves a secondary process for small amounts of select 157substances (e.g., potassium, hydrogen, ammonia, and drugs) to be moved from the blood in the capillaries surrounding the tubules into the tubules

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Large Intestine Parts

The cecum (and appendix), the colon, the rectum, and the anus

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Incontinence

The loss of control of either urine or bowel elimination.

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Urinary Incontinence

A disruption in the storage or emptying of the bladder with involuntary release of urine usually associated with dysfunction of the external and/or internal urinary sphincters

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Stress Incontinence

Leakage of small amounts of urine during physical movement (coughing, sneezing, exercising)

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Urge Incontinence

Leakage of large amounts of urine at unexpected times, including during sleep

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Overactive bladder Incontinence

Urinary frequency and urgency, with or without urge incontinence

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Functional Incontinence

Untimely urination because of physical disability, external obstacles, or cognitive problems that prevent person from reaching toilet

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Overflow Incontinence

Unexpected leakage of small amounts of urine because of full bladder

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Mixed Incontinence

Usually occurrence of stress and urge incontinence together

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Transient Incontinence

Leakage that occurs temporarily because of a situation that will pass (infection, taking a new medication, colds with coughing)

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Bowel incontinence

The involuntary passage of stool and ranges from an occasional leakage of stool while passing gas (flatus) to a complete loss of bowel control

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Retention

The unintentional retention of urine or stool and can occur at any age.

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Urinary Retention

Occurs as either incomplete emptying of the bladder after urination or a complete inability to urinate and is caused by a number of factors

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Retention of Stool

Occurs when the person is unable to pass the stool successfully from the rectum

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Nephritis

Kidney inflammation

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Pyelonephritis

Renal pelvis inflammation

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Cystitis

Bladder inflammation

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Intestinal Tract Chronic Inflammatory Conditions

  • Colitis
  • Diverticulitis
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Neoplasms

Tumors that can have an effect on urinary and bowel elimination

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Colonoscopy

Visualization of the colon

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Sigmoidoscopy

Visualization of the sigmoid colon

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Cystoscopy

Visualization of the bladder

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Uroscopy

Visualization of the urethra or ureters

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Antibiotics.

Medication to treat infections

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Diuretics.

Medications to increase the volume of urine produced along with excreting sodium and potassium from the body by affecting the water resorption in the renal tubules

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Loop Diuretics

Prevent reabsorption of sodium in the Loop of Henle

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Potassium-Sparing Ddiuretics

Stop the extensive loss of potassium at the distal convoluted tubules

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Antispasmodics.

Anticholinergics that are often used to relieve smooth muscle spasms in the bowel or bladder

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Agents to manage constipation

Over-the-counter versions of laxatives, bulk-forming agents, bowel stimulants, lubricants, stool softeners, saline laxatives, and enemas

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Analgesics.

Medications for relief of mild discomfort to severe pain for select urinary or bowel elimination conditions

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Dialysis.

Medical procedure for acute or chronic renal failure

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Hemodialysis

The blood is circulated from the patient to the dialysis machine and then back to the patient over several hours

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Peritoneal Dialysis

A dialysate solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity that absorbs the toxins over several hours; the solution and waste are then removed

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Urinary Catheterization

This can be intermittently performed with a straight, or indwelling can be inserted

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Stents

Rigid tubes that provide an opening that is not normally present

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Renal calculi.

Kidney stones

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Lithotripsy

Fragmentation of the stones through sound wave technology

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Endourologic Procedures

Insertion of a ureteroscope and crushing the stones with a surgical instrument called a lithotrite

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Open Procedures (nephrolithotomy, pyelolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, or cystotomy)

An incision is made and the stone is surgically removed.

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Nephrectomy.

Surgical removal of the kidney

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Polycystic

Kidney disease

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Prostatectomy

Removal of the prostate

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Transurethral Resection

Resection of the urethra

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Cystectomy Partial or Total

Removal of the bladder

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colectomy

colon resection

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Anastomosed

The two ends of the colon are reattached

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Colostomy/ileostomy.

Diversion of the intestines (colon or small intestine) through a stoma on the skin

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Hemorrhoidectomy.

Removal of internal or external hemorrhoids

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Urolithiasis

The presence of stones called calculi within the urinary tract

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Nephrolithiasis

Stones that form in the kidney

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Ureterolithiasis

Stones that form within the ureters

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

An enlargement of the prostate gland

68

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Caused by an infection in the urinary tract

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Renal failure

When there is a partially or complete cessation of kidney function

70

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

A loss of renal function over a few days and can typically be reversed

71

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Renal failure that occurs over a long period of time

72

Constipation

The difficulty of passing stool and is usually associated with the passage of hard, dry stool

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Diarrhea

The frequent passing of watery, liquid, or loose stools

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Acute Diarrhea

Inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract due to a virus or bacteria and usually resolves in a few days

75

Chronic Diarrhea

Inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract that persists for a longer period of time, such as several weeks

76

Colorectal Cancer

Cancer of the colon/rectal

77

The patient talks with the nurse about bladder health. What is one of the most important recommendations the nurse can make for this patient?

Drink 6 to 8 glasses of noncaffeinated fluids daily

78

The nurse is caring for a confused patient who is wearing a vest restraint in bed. The nurse speaks with an unlicensed assistant about toileting the patient. The nurse knows the unlicensed assistant understands the toileting procedure when making which statement?

The patient needs to be toileted to maintain a regular toileting schedule

79

If a patient has a colostomy in the area known as the “ascending colon,” what would the nurse expect of the stool in the colostomy device?

Stool would be loose

80

A patient with a history of cardiac problems talks with the nurse about bowel elimination. The nurse stresses to the patient not to strain during bowel movements. Straining can put pressure on the vagas nerve and cause bradycardia. The nurse is explaining which physiological action?

Valsalva maneuver

81

The nurse is talking with a patient who was just diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. The patient asks the nurse how to prevent such infections in the future. The nurse should make which appropriate recommendations for the patient? (Select all that apply.)

  • Drink 6 to 8 glasses of noncaffeinated fluids daily
  • Void when the urge is felt

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