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PSY220 Final Exam Vocabulary

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created 6 weeks ago by wytneyjodeiter
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Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year

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1

Human Development

Scientific study of the processes of change & stability throughout the human life span.

2

Physical Development

Growth of body & brain, including patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills, & health.

3

Cognitive Development

Pattern of change in mental abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, & creativity.

4

Psychosocial Development

Pattern of change in emotions, personality, & social relationships.

5

Individual Differences

Differences in the characteristics, influences, or developmental outcomes.

6

Heredity

Inborn traits or characteristics inherited from the biological parents.

7

Environment

Totality of nonhereditary, or experiential influences on development.

8

Maturation

Unfolding of a natural sequence of physical and behavioral changes.

9

Mechanistic Model

Model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli.

10

Organismic Model

Model that views human development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.

11

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

Vygotsky's theory of how contextual factors affect children's development.

12

Cross-Sectional Study

Study designed to assess age-related differences, in which people of different ages are assessed on one occasion.

13

Longitudinal Study

Study designed to assess age changes in a sample over time.

14

Zygote

One-celled organism resulting from fertilization.

15

Dizygotic Twins

Twins conceived by the union of two different ova (or a single ovum that has split) with two different sperm cells; also called fraternal twins; they are no more alike genetically than any other siblings.

16

Monozygotic Twins

Twins resulting from the division of a single zygote after fertilization; also called identical twins; they are genetically similar.

17

Phenotype

Observable characteristics of a person.

18

Genotype

Genetic makeup of a person, containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics.

19

Heritability

Statistical estimate of contribution of a heredity to individual differences in a specific trait within a given population.

20

Gestation

Period of development between conception & birth.

21

Germinal Stage

First 2 weeks of prenatal development, characterized by rapid cell division, blastocyst formation, & implantation in the wall of the uterus.

22

Embryonic Stage

Second stage of gestation (2 to 8 weeks), characterized by rapid growth & development of major body systems and organs.

23

Fetal Stage

Final stage of gestation (from 8 weeks to birth), characterized by increased differentiation of body parts and greatly enlarged body size.

24

Parturition

The act or process of giving birth.

25

Neonatal Period

First 4 weeks of life, a time of transition from intrauterine dependency to independent existence.

26

Neonate

Newborn baby, up to 4 weeks old.

27

Apgar Scale

Standard measurement of a newborn's condition; it assesses appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, & respiration.

28

Protective Factors

Influences that reduce the impact of potentially negative influences & tend to predict positive outcomes.

29

Cephalocaudal Principle

Principle that development proceeds in a head-to-tail direction, that is, that upper parts of the body develop before lower parts of the trunk.

30

Prximodistal Principle

Principle that development proceeds from within to without, that is, that parts of the body near the center develop before extremities.

31

Myelination

Process of coating neural pathways with a fatty substance called myelin, which enables faster communication between cells.

32

Plasticity

Modifiability, or "molding", of the brain through experience.

33

Object permancne

Piaget's term for the understanding that a person or object still exists when out of sight.

34

Visual Preference

Tendency of infants to spend more time looking at one sight than another.

35

Prelinguistic Speech

Forerunner of linguistic speech; utterances of sounds that are not words, including crying, cooing, babbling, and accidental & deliberate imitation of sounds without understanding of their meaning.

36

Linguistic Speech

Verbal expression designed to convey meaning.

37

Emotions

Subjective reactions to experiences that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes.

38

Social Cognition

The ability to understand that others have mental states and to gauge their feelings and actions.

39

"Easy" Children

Children with a generally happy temperament, regular biological rhythms, and a readiness to accept new experiences.

40

"Difficult" Children

Children with irritable temperament, irregular biological rhythms, and intense emotional responses.

41

"Slow-to-warm-up" Children

Children whose temperament is generally mild but who are hesitant about accepting new experiences.

42

Gender

Significance of being male or female

43

Gender Typing

Socialization process by which children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles.

44

Theory of Mind

Awareness & understanding of mental processes.

45

Executive Function

Conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems.

46

Scaffolding

Temporary support to help a child master a task.

47

Self-Concept

Sense of self; descriptive & evaluative mental picture of one's abilities & traits.

48

Self-Definition

Cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself.

49

Self-Esteem

The judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth.

50

Gender Identity

Awareness, developed in early childhood, that one is male or female.

51

Corporal Punishment

Use of physical force with the intention of causing pain but not injury so as to correct or control behavior.

52

Inductive Techniques

Disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child's sense of reason and fairness.

53

Body Image

Descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one's appearance.

54

Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Sternberg's theory describing three elements of intelligence: componential, experiential, and contextual.

55

Componential Element

Sternberg's term for the analytic aspect of intelligence

56

Experiential Element

Sternberg's term for the insightful or creative aspect of intelligence.

57

Contextual Element

Sternberg's term for the practical aspect of intelligence.

58

Intellectual Disability

Significantly subnormal cognitive functioning. Also referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation.

59

Learning Disabilities (LDs)

Disorders that interfere with specific aspects of learning & school achievement.

60

Internalizing Behavior

Behaviors by which emotional problems are turned inward; for example, anxiety or depression.

61

Externalizing Behaivors

Behaviors by which a child acts out emotional difficulties; for example, aggression or hostility.

62

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Pattern of behavior, persisting into middle childhood, marked by negativity, hostility, and defiance.

63

Conduct Disorder (CD)

Repetitive, persistent pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the rights of others.

64

School Phobia

Unrealistic fear of going to school; may be a form of separation anxiety or social phobia.

65

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Conditioning involving excessive, prolonged anxiety concerning separation from home or from people to whom a person is attached.

66

Childhood Depression

Mood disorder characterized by such symptoms as a prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthlessness, weight change, physical complaints and thoughts of death or suicide.

67

Resilient Children

Children who weather adverse circumstances, function well despite challenges or threats, or bounce back from traumatic events.

68

Adolescence

Developmental transition between childhood and adulthood entailing major physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes.

69

Puberty

Process by which a person attains sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce.

70

Primary Sex Characteristics

Organs directly related to reproduction, which enlarge & mature during adolescence.

71

Secondary Sex Characteristics

Physiological signs of sexual maturation (such as breast development & growth of body hair) that do not involve the sex organs.

72

Preconventional Morality

First level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which control is external & rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishments or out of self-interest.

73

Conventional Morality

Second level in Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which standards of authority figures are internalized

74

Postconventional Morality

Third level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, in which people follow internally held moral principles and can decide among conflicting moral standards.

75

Identity

According to Erikson, a coherent conception of the self, made up of goals, values, and beliefs to which a person is solidly committed.

76

Identity Achievement

Identity status, described by Marcia, that is characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis, a period spent in exploring alternatives.

77

Foreclosure

Identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person who has not spent time considering alternatives (that is, has not been in crisis) is committed to other people's plans for his or her life.

78

Moratorium

Identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person is currently considering alternatives (in crisis) and seems headed for commitment.

79

Identity Diffusion

Identity status, described by Marcia, that is characterized by absence of commitment & lack of serious consideration of alternatives

80

Emerging Adulthood

Proposed transitional period between adolescence & adulthood commonly found in industrialized countries.

81

Recentering

Process that underlies the shift to an adult identity.

82

Normative-Stage Model

Theoretical Model that describes psychosocial development in terms of a definite sequence of age-related changes.

83

Timing-of-Events Model

Theoretical model of personality development that describes adult psychosocial development as a response to the expected or unexpected occurrences & timing of important life events.

84

Social Clock

Set of cultural norms or expectations for the times of life when certain important events, such as marriage, parenthood, entry into work, and retirement, should occur.

85

Five-Factor Model

Theoretical model of personality, developed & tested by Costa & McCrae, based on the "Big Five" factors underlying clusters of related personality traits: neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness.

86

Menopause

Cessation of menstruation & of ability to bear children.

87

Perimenopause

Period of several years during which a woman experiences physiological changes of menopause; includes first year after end of menstruation; also called climacteric.

88

Fluid Intelligence

Type of intelligence that is applied to novel problems and is relatively independent of educational & cultural influences.

89

Crystallized intelligence

Type of intelligence involving the ability to remember & use learned information; it is largely dependent on education & culture.

90

Midlife Crisis

In some normative-crisis models, stressful life period precipitated by the review & reevaluation of one's past, typically occurring in the early to middle 40s.

91

Midlife Review

Introspective examination that often occurs in middle age, leading to reappraisal & revision of values & priorities.

92

Identity Process Theory (IPT)

Whitbourne's theory of identity development based on processes of assimilation & accommodation.

93

Empty Nest

Transitional phase of parenting following the last child's leaving the parents' home.

94

Sandwich Generation

Middle-aged adults squeezed by competing needs to raise or launch children & to care for elderly parents.

95

Ageism

Prejudice or discrimination against a person (most commonly an older person) based on age.

96

Gerontology

Study of the aged and the process of aging.

97

Geriatrics

Branch of medicine concerned with processes of aging & medical conditions associated with old age.

98

Life Expectancy

Age to which a person in a particular cohort is statistically likely to live on the basis of average longevity of a population.

99

Genetic-Preprogramming Theories

Theories that explain biological aging as resulting from a genetically determined developmental timetable.

100

Variable-Rate Theories

Theories that explain biological aging as a result of processes that involve damage to biological systems & that vary from person to person.

101

Alzheimer's Disease

Progressive, irreversible, degenerative brain disorder characterized by cognitive deterioration & loss of control of bodily functions, leading to death.

102

Parkinson's Disease

Progressive, irreversible, degenerative neurological disorder, characterized by tremor, stiffness, slowed movement, & unstable posture.

103

Selective Optimization & Compensation (SOC)

Enhancing overall cognitive functioning by using stronger abilities to compensate for those that have weakened.

104

Aging in Place

Remaining in one's own home with or without assistance in later life.


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