Anatomy and Physiology

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1

The branch of medicine that deals with correction of disorders of the musculoskeletal system is called

  1. Rheumatics
  2. Podiatry
  3. Orthopedics
  4. Cardiology
  5. Dermatology

C

2

How many bones are found in the adult human skeleton?

  1. 200
  2. 206
  3. 212
  4. 227
  5. 250

B

3

Which of the following is NOT true?

  1. The axial skeleton has 80 bones.
  2. The appendicular skeleton has 126 bones.
  3. The axial skeleton is composed of the bones that run through the axis of the body.
  4. Children have more bones than adults.
  5. The appendicular skeleton does not include the pelvic and pectoral girdles.

E

4

Which of the following bones is NOT found in the axial skeleton?

  1. Hyoid
  2. Ribs
  3. Vertebrae
  4. Carpals
  5. Sternum

D

5

Which of the following bones is part of the axial skeleton?

  1. Tarsal
  2. Tibia
  3. Sphenoid
  4. Scapula
  5. Clavicle

C

6

Which of the following types of bone is the femur?

  1. Long bone
  2. Short bone
  3. Flat bone
  4. Irregular bone
  5. Sesamoid bone

A

7

Which of the following types of bone is the occipital?

  1. Long bone
  2. Short bone
  3. Flat bone
  4. Irregular bone
  5. Sesamoid bone

C

8

Which of the following types of bones comprise the ankles and wrists?

  1. Long bone
  2. Sutural bone
  3. Irregular bone
  4. Sesamoid bone
  5. Short bone

E

9

Which of the following is NOT true of surface markings on bone?

  1. They allow the passage of nerves and blood vessels.
  2. They provide sites of attachment for muscles.
  3. They allow bones to shorten or lengthen.
  4. They help form joints.
  5. They can be depressions or projections.

C

10

An opening or hole in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves and ligaments pass is called a

  1. fissure.
  2. foramen.
  3. fossa.
  4. meatus.
  5. sulcus.

B

11

A rounded articular projection supported on a constricted portion (neck) of a bone is called a

  1. foramen.
  2. condyle.
  3. tuberosity.
  4. head.
  5. tubercle.

D

12

A prominent ridge or elongated projection on a bone is called a

  1. crest.
  2. trochanter.
  3. sulcus.
  4. fossa.
  5. tubercle.

A

13

The tube-like passageway found in the temporal bone that allows sound waves to reach the eardrum is an example of which of the following bone surface markings?

  1. fissure
  2. foramen
  3. fossa
  4. meatus
  5. sulcus

D

14

Bones in the following area protect the brain.

  1. cranium
  2. vertebral column
  3. sacrum
  4. face
  5. ribcage

A

15

Which of the following cranial bones are paired bones in the human skull?

  1. temporal
  2. parietal
  3. sphenoid
  4. ethmoid
  5. more than one selection is correct

E

16

Which of the following facial bones is a single (unpaired) bone in the human skull?

  1. maxilla
  2. nasal
  3. lacrimal
  4. mandible
  5. zygomatic

D

17

Which of the following is NOT a facial bone?

  1. parietal
  2. nasal
  3. maxillae
  4. zygomatic
  5. palatine

A

18

Which of the following statements is NOT true with regard to bones of the skull?

  1. Some skull bones are covered with a mucous membrane.
  2. The only movable bone in the skull is the mandible.
  3. The bones of the skull contain foramina but no fissures.
  4. The facial bones provide support for the entrance of the digestive system.
  5. Some bones of the skull contain sinus cavities.

C

19

Which of the following bones is NOT visible from the anterior view of the skull?

  1. parietal
  2. frontal
  3. mandible
  4. occipital
  5. maxilla

D

20

These cranial bones form the inferior lateral aspects of the cranium and part of the cranial floor.

  1. frontal
  2. temporal
  3. parietal
  4. occipital
  5. nasal

B

21

These cranial bones contain the organs of hearing and balance, and articulate with the mandible.

  1. frontal
  2. temporal
  3. parietal
  4. occipital
  5. nasal

B

22

The mastoid process

  1. is a rounded projection of the parietal bones.
  2. is the point of attachment for several neck muscles.
  3. is anterior to the external auditory meatus.
  4. is both a rounded projection of the parietal bones and the point of attachment for several neck muscles.
  5. All of these answer choices are correct.

B

23

These projections found on both sides of the foramen magnum articulate with depressions on the first cervicle vertebrae.

  1. mastoid processes
  2. mandibular condyles
  3. foramen magnum
  4. occipital condyles
  5. sella turcica

D

24

Which cranial bone is called the "keystone" of the cranial floor because it articulates with every other cranial bone?

  1. occipital
  2. frontal
  3. ethmoid
  4. nasal
  5. sphenoid

E

25

This cranial bone is anterioir to the sphenoid and posterior to the nasal bones. It contains foramina for the olfactory cranial nerves.

  1. ethmoid
  2. frontal
  3. palatine
  4. maxilla
  5. temporal

A

26

This facial bone articulates with teeth.

  1. lacrimal
  2. palatine
  3. vomer
  4. maxillae
  5. nasal

D

27

Which of the following is NOT a facial bone?

  1. vomer
  2. palatine
  3. lacrimal
  4. occipital
  5. mandible

D

28

Which bone of the axial skeleton does NOT articulate with any other bone?

  1. vertebrae
  2. ethmoid
  3. sternum
  4. hyoid
  5. ilium

D

29

The hyoid bone is suspended by ligaments and muscle that extend from the of the temporal bone.

  1. mastoid process
  2. styloid process
  3. occipital condyle
  4. zygomatic process
  5. superior nuchal line

B

30

Joe was found dead. His hyoid bone was broken. What was the most likely cause of death?

  1. natural causes
  2. cardiac arrest
  3. gun shot
  4. strangulation
  5. chokimg

D

31

Ribs that have costal cartilage that attaches directly to the sternum are called

  1. floating ribs.
  2. vertebrochondral ribs.
  3. false ribs.
  4. true ribs.
  5. separated ribs.

D

32

The tubercle found on the neck of a rib articulates with a facet found on the

  1. spinous process of a thoracic vertebra.
  2. spinous process of a lumbar vertebra.
  3. transverse process of a thoracic vertebra.
  4. xiphoid process of the sternum.
  5. manubriom of the sternum.

C

33

What is the purpose of the nucleus pulposus region of intervertebral discs?

  1. To compress the vertebral bones.
  2. To help absorb vertical shock to the spinal column.
  3. calcium storage
  4. spinal fluid reservoir
  5. muscle attachment

B

34

The two primary curves of the adult vertebral column are the

  1. thoracic and sacral curves.
  2. lumbar and sacral curves.
  3. cervical and lumbar curves.
  4. cervical and thoracic curves.
  5. cervical and sacral curves.

A

35

The primary function of the transverse and spinous processes of vertebrae is

  1. attachment site for muscles.
  2. calcium storage.
  3. to support the body of the vertebrae.
  4. to hold the hyoid in place.
  5. to create a passageway for the spinal cord.

A

36

What bone marking found on the second cervical vertebra projects superiorly into the anterior portion of the vertebral foramen of the atlas?

  1. primary projection
  2. occular process
  3. odontoid process
  4. cervical projection
  5. cervix

C

37

Which of the vertebrae listed below would be the largest and strongest vertebra in adult humans?

  1. C5
  2. L4
  3. T4
  4. C7
  5. T12

B

38

The inferior articular processes of the fifth sacral vertebra that are found on either side of the sacral hiatus are called

  1. sacral cornua.
  2. coccygeal cornua.
  3. lateral sacral crests.
  4. anterior sacral foramina.
  5. median sacral crests.

A

39

Which gender shows the coccyx pointed inferiorly?

  1. Females
  2. Males
  3. Both genders
  4. The coccyx does not point inferiorly in either gender.

A

40

The junction between the manubrium and the body of the sternum forms the

  1. suprasternal notch.
  2. xiphoid process.
  3. sternal angle.
  4. sternoclavicular joint.
  5. mandibular joint.

C

41

What is the inflammation of one or more costal cartilage called?

  1. Costochondritis
  2. Arthritis
  3. Cartilaginous distension
  4. Otitis
  5. Intercostal space distension

A

42
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In the diagram, which bone is the flat bone?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

C

43
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In the diagram, which bone is the short bone?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

44
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In the diagram, where is the ethmoid bone?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

D

45
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In the diagram, where is the lacrimal bone?

  1. E
  2. F
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

A

46
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In the diagram, which bone forms the greater portion of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. G

B

47
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In the diagram, which bone articulates with every other bone of the face except the mandible?

  1. F
  2. G
  3. H
  4. I
  5. J

D

48
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In the diagram, where is the zygomatic bone?

  1. G
  2. H
  3. I
  4. J
  5. None of these answer choices are correct.

B

49
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In the diagram, where is the temporal bone?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. G
  5. None of the selections are correct.

E

50
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In the diagram, where is the vomer?

  1. D
  2. E
  3. F
  4. I
  5. J

C

51
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In the diagram, which bone includes the magnum foramen?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. F
  5. G

B

52
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In the diagram, which bone is considered the keystone of the cranial floor?

  1. E
  2. B
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

A

53
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In the diagram, where is the ethmoid bone?

  1. J
  2. K
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

C

54
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In the diagram, where is the styloid process?

  1. J
  2. K
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

B

55
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In the diagram, where is the mastoid process?

  1. J
  2. K
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

A

56
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In the diagram, where is the pterygoid process?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

C

57
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In the diagram, where is the palatine bone?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

E

58
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In the diagram, where is the nasal bone?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

D

59
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In the diagram, where is the mastoid process?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. G

B

60
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In the diagram, where is the superior nuchal line?

  1. A
  2. E
  3. F
  4. H
  5. I

B

61
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In the diagram, where is the foramen magnum?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

C

62
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In the diagram, where is the inferior nuchal line?

  1. B
  2. E
  3. F
  4. G
  5. I

C

63
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In the diagram, where is the crista galli?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. None of these answer choices are correct.

E

64
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In the diagram, where is the mandibular fossa?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

C

65
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In the diagram, where is the foramen ovale?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. G

A

66
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In the diagram, where is the foramen spinosum?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. G
  5. H

C

67
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In the diagram, where is the cribriform plate?

  1. D
  2. E
  3. F
  4. G
  5. H

C

68
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In the diagram, where is the foramen rotundum?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. E
  5. F

A

69
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In the diagram, where is the olfactory foramina?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. G

C

70
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In the diagram, where is the crista galli?

  1. C
  2. A
  3. E
  4. F
  5. G

B

71
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In the diagram, where is the vomer bone?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. F
  4. D
  5. E

C

72
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In the diagram, where is the perpendicular plate?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. F
  5. D

B

73
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In the diagram, where is the mental foramen?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. None of these answer choices are correct

A

74
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In the diagram, where is the mandibular notch?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. E
  4. F
  5. None of these answer choices are correct.

B

75
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In the diagram, where is the coronoid process?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. E
  4. F
  5. None of these answers choices are correct.

D

76
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This fontanel usually closes within 18 to 24 months after birth.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. Both A and C

A

77
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This fontanel usually closes about two months after birth.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. None of these answer choices are correct.

B

78
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This is the largest fontanel in size at birth.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. Both A and D

A

79
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These fontanels begin closing within the first month or two after birth but do not completely close until close to one year after birth.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. All of these answer choices are correct.

C

80
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In the diagram, where is inferior articular process?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. None of these answer choices are correct

D

81
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In the diagram, where is the lamina of the vertebral arch?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. F

B

82
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In the diagram, where is the spinous process?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

C

83
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Which of the cervical vertebrae contain a unique process that is responsible for the ability to move your head from side to side signifying "no"?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

84
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Which of the cervical vertebrae are responsible for permitting the movement of the head seen when saying "yes"?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

A

85
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In the diagram, where is the superior vertebral notch?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. F
  4. G
  5. K

C

86
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In the diagram, where is the facet for articular part of the tubercle of the rib?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. H
  5. I

B

87
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In the diagram, where is the pedicle?

  1. B
  2. H
  3. I
  4. K
  5. D

C

88
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In the diagram, where is the superior facet?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. F
  4. G
  5. E

D

89
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In the diagram, where is the vertebral body?

  1. C
  2. D
  3. H
  4. I
  5. J

C

90
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In the diagram, which part is often broken during CPR due to incorrect positioning of hands?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

91
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In the diagram, where is the clavicular notch?

  1. A
  2. C
  3. D
  4. B
  5. F

B

92
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In the diagram, where is the sternal angle?

  1. A
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

C

93
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 1?

  1. internal carotid artery
  2. mental nerve
  3. cranial nerve XI (accessory)
  4. branch of the occipital artery
  5. cranial nerve VII (facial)

E

94
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 2?

  1. internal carotid artery
  2. mental nerve
  3. cranial nerve XI (accessory)
  4. branch of the occipital artery
  5. cranial nerve VII (facial)

C

95
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  1. In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 3?
  2. internal carotid artery
  3. mental nerve
  4. cranial nerve XI (accessory)
  5. branch of the occipital artery to dura mater
  6. cranial nerve VII (facial)

D

96
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 4?

  1. internal carotid artery
  2. mental nerve
  3. cranial nerve XI (accessory)
  4. branch of the occipital artery
  5. cranial nerve VII (facial)

A

97
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 1?

  1. cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve)
  2. internal jugular vein
  3. branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  4. mandibular branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)
  5. maxillary branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)

E

98
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 2?

  1. cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve)
  2. internal jugular vein
  3. branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  4. mandibular branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)
  5. maxillary branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)

D

99
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 3?

  1. cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve)
  2. internal jugular vein
  3. branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  4. mandibular branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)
  5. maxillary branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)

A

100
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 4?

  1. cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve)
  2. internal jugular vein
  3. branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  4. mandibular branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)
  5. maxillary branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)

B

101
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 5?

  1. cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve)
  2. internal jugular vein
  3. branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  4. mandibular branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)
  5. maxillary branch of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)

C

102
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 1?

  1. supraorbital nerve
  2. cranial nerve II (optic nerve)
  3. infraorbital nerve
  4. cranial nerve I (olfactory nerve)
  5. inferior alveolar nerve

A

103
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 2?

  1. supraorbital nerve
  2. cranial nerve II (optic nerve)
  3. infraorbital nerve
  4. cranial nerve I (olfactory nerve)
  5. inferior alveolar nerve

C

104
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In the diagram, which of the following structures passes through the opening labeled 3?

  1. supraorbital nerve
  2. cranial nerve II (optic nerve)
  3. infraorbital nerve
  4. cranial nerve I (olfactory nerve)
  5. inferior alveolar nerve

B

105
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This fontanel usually begins to close 1-2 months after birth, but closure is generally not complete until 12 months.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

C

106
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Name the structure labeled A in the diagram.

  1. posterolateral fontanel
  2. posterior fontanel
  3. anterior fontanel
  4. anterolateral fontanel
  5. frontal bone

C

107
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Name the structure labeled B in the diagram.

  1. posterolateral fontanel
  2. posterior fontanel
  3. anterior fontanel
  4. anterolateral fontanel
  5. occipital bone

B

108
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Name the structure labeled C in the diagram.

  1. posterolateral fontanel
  2. posterior fontanel
  3. anterior fontanel
  4. anterolateral fontanel
  5. occipital bone

A

109
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Name the structure labeled D in the diagram.

  1. posterolateral fontanel
  2. posterior fontanel
  3. anterior fontanel
  4. anterolateral fontanel
  5. frontal bone

D

110
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Which bone in the diagram articulates superiorly with the apex of the sacrum?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

111
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Which structure in the diagram allows for passage of nerves and blood vessels?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

C

112
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Which structure in the diagram is the apex of the sacrum?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

B

113
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Which structure in the diagram is the sacral ala?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

E

114
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Which structure in the diagram is the superior articular process?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

A

115

Which condition is characterized by an increase or exaggeration of the lumbar curve of the vertebral column?

  1. herniated disc
  2. scolioisis
  3. kyphosis
  4. lordosis
  5. spina bifida

D

116

Which condition is characterized by an increase in the thoracic curve of the vertebral column?

  1. herniated disc
  2. scolioisis
  3. kyphosis
  4. lordosis
  5. spina bifida

C

117

Which condition is characterized by a lateral bending of the vertebral column in the thoracic region?

  1. herniated disc
  2. scolioisis
  3. kyphosis
  4. lordosis
  5. spina bifida

B

118

Which condition is the protrusion of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly or into one of the adjacent vertebral bodies in the vertebral column?

  1. herniated disc
  2. scolioisis
  3. kyphosis
  4. lordosis
  5. spina bifida

A

119

Which of the following bones contains a sac that collects tears and passes them into the nasal cavity?

  1. maxilla
  2. sphenoid
  3. nasal
  4. ethmoid
  5. lacrimal

E

120

The union of these two bones forms the zygomatic arch.

  1. temporal and zygomatic
  2. sphenoid and maxilla
  3. temporal and mandible
  4. temporal and frontal
  5. temporal and parietal

A

121

What are the three correct components of the nasal septum?

  1. inferior nasal concha, vomer and lacrimal bone
  2. vomer, superior nasal concha and septal cartilage
  3. inferior nasal concha, septal cartilage and perpendicular plate of ethmoid
  4. vomer, septal cartilage and perpendicular plate of ethmoid
  5. vomer, septal cartilage and crista galli of ethmoid

D

122

Sella turcica is a bony depression found in this cranial bone.

  1. sphenoid
  2. frontal
  3. temporal
  4. ethmoid
  5. occipital

A

123

The pituitary gland is contained in a depression found in this cranial bone.

  1. ethmoid
  2. sphenoid
  3. lacrimal
  4. temporal
  5. parietal

B


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