what are the basic differences between cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons?
Cortical nephrons: most numerous type, renal corpuscles in outer portion of renal cortex, short loops of Henle lying mainly in cortex and penetrate only into outer region of medulla, loop blood supply is from peritubular capillaries
juxtamedullary nephrons: least numerous, corpuscles lie deep in cortex close to medulla, long loop of henle extending into deepest region of medulla, loop blood supply from vasa recta.
why are the kidneys said to be retroperitoneal?
what structures pass through the renal hilus?
What volume of blood enters the renal arteries per minutes?
Where is the juxtaglumerular apparatus located and what is its structure?
When cells of the renal tubules secrete the drug penicillin, is the drug being added to or removed from the bloodstream?
Why is there much greater filtration through glomerular capillaries than through capillaries elsewhere in the body?
What chemical substances are normally present in urine?
In which section of the nephrons and collecting ducts does secretion occur?
Which part of the filtration membrane prevents red blood cells from entering the capsular space?
If the urinary excretion rate of a drug such as penicillin is greater than the rate at which it is filtered at the glomerulus, how else is it getting into the urine?
What is the major chemical difference between blood plasma and glomerular filtrate?
Which portions of the renal tubule and collecting duct reabsorb more solutes than water to produce dilute urine?
Which solutes are the main contributors to the high osmotic gradient of interstitial fluid in the renal medulla?
How does filtered glucose enter and leave a PCT cell?
Besides ADH, which other hormones contribute to the regulation of water reabsorption?
Which hormone stimulates reabsorption and secretion by principal cells, and how does this hormone exert its effect?
Which hormones are responsible for influencing the renal reabsorption?
How does Na+, K+, Cl-ions is transported in a thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
Active NaCl transport in the thick ascending limb is driven by the basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase pump. The activity of this transporter is higher in the thick ascending limb than in other nephron segments, indicating the importance of active Na+ reabsorption at this site [1-3]. The Na+-K+-ATPase pump has two major effects on Na+ handling: it actively transports reabsorbed Na+ out of the cell and back into the systemic circulation via the peritubular capillaries; and it maintains a low cell Na+ concentration that allows luminal Na+ to continue to enter the cell down a concentration gradient .
What is the function of the tight junction between tubule cells?