medical terminology chapter 15

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1

cervic/o

neck or cervix

2

colp/o,vagin/o

vagina(sheath0

3

episo/o,vulv/o

vulva(covering)

4

gynec/o

woman

5

hyster/o,metr/o, uter/o

uterus

6

lact/o

milk

7

mast/o,mammo/o

breast

8

men/o

menstruation

9

obstetr/o

midwife

10

oophor/o,ovari/o

ovary

11

ov/i,ov/o

egg

12

pelv/i

pelvis

13

salping/o

uterint tuve also esutachian tuve

14

toc/o

labor or birth

15

-arche

beginnin

16

uterus

womb. a pear shaped organ in the pelvic cavity in which the embryo and fetus develops

17

fundus

upper poriton of the uterus above the entry to the uterine tubes

18

endometrium

lining of the uterus,which is shed approximately every 28 to 30 days in a nonpregnant female during menstruation

19

myometrium

muscular wall of the uterus

20

uterine tubes

fallopian tubes

tubes extending from each side of the uterus toward th ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus

21

adnexa

uternine tubes and ovaries

22

right uterine appendage

right tube and ovary

23

left uterine appenage

left tube and ovary

24

ovary

one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones

25

cervix

neck of the uterus

26

cervical os

opening of the cervix to the uterus

27

vagina

tubular passageway from the cervix to the outside of the body

28

vulva

external genitalia of the female

29

labia

folds of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening; knows an the labia majora and labia minora

30

clitoris

female erectile tissue in the anterior portion of the vulva

31

hypen

fold of mucos membrane that encircles the entrance to the vagina

32

introitus

entrance to the vagina

33

batholin glands

two glands located on iether side of the vaginal openin that secrete a lubricant dduring interncourse

34

perineum

region between the vulva and anus

35

mamary glands

two glands in the female brests that are capable of producing milk

36

mammary papilla

nipple

37

areola

dark=pigmented area around the neipple

38

embryo

the developin organism from fertizlaiton to the end of the wight week

39

fetus

the developing organism from the ninth week to birth

40

placenta

vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy to provide nourtshment for the fetus(placenta-cake)

41

amnion

amniotic sac

innermost of the membranes surrounding the embryo in the uterus, filled with amniotic fluid

42

amniotic fluid

fluid within the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects the fetus

43

meconium

intestinal discharges of the fetus that form the first stools in the newborn

44

amenorrhea

abscence of menstruation

45

dysmenorrhea

painful menstruation

46

oligomenorrhea

scanty menstrual period

47

anovulation

abscense of ovulation

48

dyspareunia

painful intercourse

49

leukorrhea

abnormal white or yellow vaginal discharge

50

menorrhagia

excessive bleeding at the time of menstruation

51

metrorrhagia

bleeding from the uterus at any time other than normal menstruation

52

oligo-ovulation

irregular ovulation

53

cercicitis

inflammationof the cervix

54

congenital anomalies

congenital irregulariteis

birth defects that cuase abnormal developmen of an organ or a structure

55

dermoid cyst

congenital tumor composed of displaced embryonic tissue typically found in an ovary and usually benighn

56

diplacement of uterus

displacemnt of the uterus from its normal position

57

anteflexion

abnormal forward bending of the uterus

58

retroflexion

abnormal backward bending of the uterus

59

retroversion

backward turn of the whole uterus; also called tipped uterus

60

endometriosis

condiotn characterized by migration of portion of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity

61

endometritis

inflammation of the endometrium

62

fibroid

fibromyoma

leiomyoma

benighn tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muslce and fibrous connective tissue

63

fistula

abnormal passage such as from one hollow organ to another

64

rectovaginal fistula

abnormal opening between the vagina and rectum

65

vesicovaginal fistula

abnormal between the bladder and vagina

66

cervical neoplasia

abnormal development of cervical tissue cells

67

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN

potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the cervix graded according to teh extent of abnormal cell formation

CIN-1 mild dysplasia
CIN-2 moderate dysplasia
CIN-3 severe sysplasia

68

carcinoma in situ CIS of the cervix

malignant cell changes of the cervix that are localized, without any spread to adjacent structures

69

menopause

cessation of menstrual periods cuased by lack of ovarioan hormones

70

oophoritis

inflammatino of one or both ovaries

71

parovarioan cyst

cyst of the uterine tube

72

pelvic adhesions

scarring of tissue wighin the pelvic cavity resulting from endometrious, infection, or injury

73

pelvic inflammatory disease PId

inflammation of organs in teh pelvic cavit; usually includes the fallopian tubes,ovaries, and endometrium;most often caused by bacteria

74

pelvic floor relaxation

relaxation of supportive legaments of the pelvic organs

75

cystocele

pouching of the bladder into the vagina

76

rectocele

pouchin of the rectuminto the vagina

77

enterocele

pouching sac of peritoneum betwenn the vagina and the rectum

78

urethrocele

pouching of the ourethra into the vagina

79

prolapse

descent of the uterus down the vaginal canal

80

salpingitis

inflammation of a fallopian tube

81

vaginitis

inflammation of the vagina with redness, swelling, and irritaiton often caused by a specific organish(std)

82

atrophic vaginitis

thinning of the vagina and loss of moisture becasu of depleiton of estrogen, which causes inflammation of tissue

83

vaginosis

infection of the vagina, with little or no inflammation, characterized by a milk-like discharge and an unpleasant odor

84

chlamydia

often occurs with no symptoms andis treated only after it has spread, such as after causind PId pelvid inflammatiory disease

85

gonorrhea

inflammation of the genital mucous membranes caused by invation of the gonococcu

86

syphillis

caused by a spirochete transmitted via direct, intimate contact and that may involve any organ or tissue over time; usually manifest first on the skin, with the appearnce of small panless, red papules that erode and form bloodless ulcers called chancres

87

hepatitis b virus

virus that causes an inflammation of the liver; transmitted through any body fluid, including vaginal secretions, semen, and blood

88

herpes simplex virus type 2

virus that cuases ulcer like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa; after the intial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root and may recur at time of stress

89

human immunodeficiency virus

virus that causes acquired aids permitting various opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases; contracted thorugh exposure to contaminated blood or body fluid

90

human papiloma virus

virus transmitted by direct sexual contact; infection can manifest on the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals

91

condyloma acuminatum

lesion that appears as a rresult of hpv on the skin the lesions appear as cauliflowe like warts, and on mucous membranes, they have a flat appearnce; alsoknow as venereal or genital warts

92

adenocarcinoma of the breast

malignant tumor of glandular breast tissue

93

amastia

abscense of breast

94

fibrocystic breasts

benign conditon of the breast consisting of fibrous and cystic changes that render the tissue more dense; patien fells painfullumps that fluctuate with menstrual period

95

gynecomastia

development of mamary glands in the male cuased by altered homone levels

96

hypermastia

abnormally large breasts

97

mhypomastia

micromastia

unusually small breasts

98

mastitis

inflammationof the breast; most commonly occurs in women who are breast feeding

99

polymastia

presence of more than two breasts

100

polythelia

supernumerary nipples

presence of more than one nipple on a breast

101

biopsy

removal of tissue for microscopic pathologic examinaiton

102

aspiration biopsy

needle biopsy

needle draw of tissue or fluid from a cavity for cytologic examination

103

endoscopic biopsy

removal of a specimen for biopsy during an endoscopic procedur

104

excisional biopsy

removal of an entire lesion for microscopic examination

105

incisonal biopsy

remval of a piece of suspicious tissure for microscopic examination

106

stereotactic breast biopsy

use of x-ray imaging, a specilazed stereotactic frame, and a computer to calculate,precisleylocate, and direct a needl into a breast lesion to remove a core specimen for biopsy

107

sentinel node breast biopsy

biopsy of the sentinel node in a breast with early cancer to determine metastases and if no malignancy is found, to avoid the extensive removal of axillary nodes wich causes lymphediem incued raionuclide imaging to locat the sentinel noe

108

coposcopy

examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope, a specilized microscope which often has a camera attachment for phtographs; used to document findings and for folow up treatment

109

hysteroscopy

use of a hysteroscope to examine the intrauterine cavity for assesment of abnormalities

110

magnetic resonance imagine MRI

use of nonionizing images to detect gynecolgic conditons or to stage tumors arising from the endometruim or cervix

111

papanicolau smear Pap

study of cells collected from the cervix to screen for cancer and other abnormalities

112

radiography

x-ray imaging

113

hysterosalpingogram

xray of the fallopian tubes after injeciton of a contrast medum through the cervix; used to determine tubal patencey (openness)

114

mammogram

low dose xray imaging of breast tissue to detect neoplasms

115

pelvic sonography

ultrasound imaging of the femal pelvis

116

endovaginal sonogram

transvaginal sonogram

ultrasound image of the uterus tuves, and ovaries made with the ultrasonci trasnducer witin the vagina to detect conditons such as ectopic pregnancy or missed abortaiton

117

sonohysterogram

hysterosonogram

saline infusion sonogram

transvaginal sonograpic image made as sterile saline is injected into the uterus; used to assess uterine pathology or to determne tubal patency

118

transabdominal sonogram

ultrasound image of the lower abdomen, including the bladder,uterus,tubes, and ovaries, todetect conditons such as systs adn tumors

119

adhesiolysis

adhesiotomy

breaking down or severing of pelvic adhesions

120

cervical conization

removal of a cone shaped poriton of the cervix

121

colporrhaphy

suture to repair the vagina

122

colporrhaphy anterior repair

repair of a cystocele

123

colporrhaphy posterior repair

repair of a rectocele

124

colporrhaphy A&P repair

anterior and posterior repair of systocele and rectocel

125

cryosurgery

method of destroying tissue by freezing;; used for treating dysplasia and early cancers

126

dilation and curettage D&C

dilation of the cervix and scrapin of the endometrium to control bleeding, to obtain tissue for biopsy, or to remove polups or products of conception

127

hysterectomy

removal of the uterus

128

abdominal hysterctomy

removalof the uterus through an incisonin the abdomen

129

vaginal hysterectomy

removal of the uterus through the vagina

130

total hysterectomy

removal of the uterus and the cervix

131

laparoscopy

inspeciton of the abdominal or pelvic cavity with a laparascope which is an endoscope used to examine the abdominal and pelvic reigons

132

laparoscopeic surgery

surgical procedures within the abdominal or pelvic region using a laparoscope

133

laser surgery

use of a laser to destroy lesions or to dissect of cut tissue; used frequently in gynecology

134

loope electrosurgical excision procedure

large loop excision of the transformaiton zone

use of electrosurgical or radio waves transformed thorugh a loope configured elctrosurgical device to treat precancerous cervical lesions by simultaneous excisional biopsy and treatment of affected tissue is most likely to arise

135

myomectomy

excision of fibroid tumors

136

oophorectomy

excision of an ovary

137

ovarian cystectomy

excison of an ovarian cyst

138

salpingectomy

excison of a uterine tube

139

bilateral salpingooophorectomy

excison of both uternine tubes and ovaries

140

salpingotomy

inciosn into a fallopian tube; oftenperformed to remove an ectopic pregnancy

141

salpingostomy

creation of an opening in the fallopian tube to open a blockage

142

tubal ligation

sterilazation of a woman by cutiting and tying the uterine tubes

143

lumpectomy

excison of a breast tumor without removing any other tissue or lymph nodes;usually followe by raiation or chemotherapy if the tumor is cancerous

144

mastectomy

removal of a breast

145

simple mastectomy

removal of an entire breast but with underlyin mucle and axillary lumpy nodes left intact

146

radical mastectomy

removal of an entire breast along with the underlying chest muscle ans axillary lumph nodes

147

modified radical mastectomy

removal of an entire breast and lympy nodes of the axilla

148

mammoplasty

surgical reconstruction of a breast

149

augmentation mamoplasty

reconstruciton to enlarge the breast,often by insertion of an implant

150

reduction mammoplasty

reconstruction to remove excessive breast tissue

151

mastopexy

elevation of pendulous breast tissue

152

intrauterine device

contraceptive device inserted into the uterus that prevents implantationof a fertilzed egg

153

gravida

a pregnant woman; gravida followed by a number indicates the number of pregnancies

154

nulligravida

having never beenpregnant

155

primigravida

first pregnancy

156

para

to bear; a woman who has produced one or more viable offspring; para followed by a number indicated the nuber of times a pregnancy has resulted in a single or multiple birth

157

nullipara

a woman who has not borne a chile

158

primipara

first delivery

159

multipara

a woman who has given beirth to tow or more children

160

cervical effacement

progressive obliteration of the endocervical canal during delivery

161

estimated date of confiment

expected date for delivery of the baby; normally 280 days or 40 weeks from last menstrul period

162

meconium staining

presence of meconiium in amniotic fluid

163

ruptured membranes

rupture of the amniotic sac, usually at onset of labor

164

macrosomia

large bodied baby commonly seen in diabetic pregnancies

165

polyhydramnios

excessive amniotic fluid

166

abortion

expulsionof the products of conception before the tetus is viable

167

spontaeiou abortion

miscarriage; natually occuring expulsion of the products os conceptions

168

habitual abortion

spontaneous abortion occuring in three or more consective pregnancies

169

incomplete abortion

incomplete expulsion of the porducts of conception

170

missed abortion

death of a fetus or embryo within the uterus that is not natually expelled after death

171

threatned abortion

bleeding with the threat of miscarriage

172

cephalopelvic disproportion

condition preventing normal delivery thofugh the birth canal; either the babys head is too large or the birth canal is too small

173

eclampsia

true toxemia of pregnancy charcterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, severe headaches, dizziness, convulsions, and coma

174

preeclampsia

pregnancy induced hypertension

tosemia of pregnancy charcterized by high blood pressure,albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet and puffiness of the face without convulion or coma

175

ectopioc pregnancy

implantationof the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity, often in thet ube or ovary, or rarely in the abdominal cavity

176

erthroblastosis fetalis

disorder that result from the incompatibility of a fetus with and rh positive blood factor and a mother with an rh negative blood factor, causing red blood cell destruciton in the fetus. this conditon mecessitates a blodd transfusion to save the fetus

177

rh factor

presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of themother and the fetus, resulting in fetal anemia, which causes erythroblastosis fetalis

178

rh positive

presence of antigens

179

rh negative

absence of antigens

180

hyperemesis gravidarum

severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy that can cause severe dehydration in the mother and fetus

181

meconium aspiration

fetal aspiratonof amniotic fluid containing mecomium

182

placenta previa

displaced attachmetn of the placenta in the lower region of the uternine cavity

183

abruptio placentae

premature detachment of a normally sitated placenta

184

chorionic villus sampling

sampling of placental tissue for micrscopic and chemical examinaitn to detect fetal abnormalities

185

amniocentesis

aspiraiton of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities

186

fetal monitoring

use of an electronic device for simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions

187

pelvimetry

obstetric measurment of the pelvis to evaluate proer conditon for vaginal delivery

188

pregnancy test

preformed on urine or blood to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone which indicated pregnancy

189

pelvic sonography

ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis

190

endovaginal sonogram

transvaginal sonogram

ultra sound image of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries, made after introduction of an ultrasonic transducer within the vagin; useful for detecting pathology

191

obstetric sonogram

ultrasound image of the pregnant uterus to determine fetal development

192

cesarean secton

surgical delivery of a baby via an incison through the abdomen and into the uterus

193

dialation and evacuation D&E

dilaitonof the cervix and removal of the products of conception ;most commlyperfomed in the second remester or pregnacy after a missed abortion

194

episiotomy

incdison of the perineum to facilitate delivery of a babyq

195

amnioinfusion

introduciton of a solutioninto the amniotic sac; and isotonic solution is most commonly used to releve fetal disease

196

therapeutic abortian

abortion induced by mechanical means or by drugs for medical reasons

197

version

maual method for reversing the postion of the fetus, usually done to facilitate delivery

198

external version

abdominal manipulaiton

199

internal verison

intravaginal manipulation

200

abortifacient

drug that causes abortion

201

oxytocin

hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that cuases myometrial contraction; used to induce labor

202

rh immune globulin

immunizing agent given to an rhnegative mother within72 hours after delivering an rh positive baby to suppress the rh immune response

203

tocolytic afent

drug used to stop labor contractions


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