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Chapter 16: endocrine system

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review questions

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The major stimulus for release of parathyroid hormone is:
a. hormonal
b. humoral
c. neural

b. humoral


The anterior pituitary secrets all but
a. antidiuretic hormone
b. growth hormone
c. gonadotropins
d. TSH

a. antidiuretic hormone


A hormone not involved in glucose metabolism is
a. glucagon
b. cortisone
c. aldosterone
d. insulin

c. aldosterone


Parathyroid hormone
a. increases bone formation and lowers blood calcium levels
b. increseas calcium excretion from the body
c. decreases calcium absorption from the gut
d. demineralizes bone and raises blood calcium levels

d. demineralizes bone and raises blood calcium levels


steroid hormone



secreted by the posterior pituitary (two choices)



tropic hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone



causes reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys



major metabolic hormone(s) of the body

T4 and T3


incresase uterine contractions during birth



tropic hormone that stimulates the gonads to secrete sex hormones

luteinizing hormone


stimulates milk production



cause the kidneys to conserve water and/or salt
(two choices)

antidiuretic hormone


important anabolic hormone; many of its effects mediated by IGFs

growth hormone


A hypodermic injectionof epinphrine would

a. increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi of the lungs, and increase peristalis

b. decrease heart rate, decrease blood pressure, constrict the bronchi, and increase peristalsis

c. decrease heart rate, increase blood pressure, constrict the bronchi, and decrease peristalis

d. increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi, and decrease peristalsis

d. increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi, and decrease peristalsis


Testosterone is to the male as which hormone is to the female?
a. luteinizing hormone
b. progesterone
c. estrogen
d. prolactin

c. estrogen


If anterior pituitary secretion is deficient in a growing child, the child will
a. develop acromegaly
b. become a dwarf but have fairly normal body proportions
c. mature sexually at an earlier than normal age
d. be in constant danger of becoming dehydrated

b. become a dwarf but have fairly normal body proportions


If there is adequate carbohydrate intake, secretion of insulin results in
a. lower blood glucose levels
b. increased cell utilization of glucose
c. storage of glycogen
d. all of these

d. all of these


a. are produced by exocrine glands
b. carried to all parts of the body in blood
c. remain at constant concentration in the blood
d. affect only non-hormone-producing organs

b. carried to all parts of the body in blood


Some hormones act by
a. increasing the synthesis of enzymes
b. converting an inactive enzyme into an active enzyme
c. affecting only specific target organs
d. all of these

d. all of these


Absence of thyroid hormone would result in
a. increased heart rate and increased force of heart contraction
b. depression of the CNS and lethargy
c. exophthalmos
d. high metabolic rate

b. depression of the CNS and lethargy


Medullary chromaffin cells are found in the
a. parathyroid gland
b. anterior pituitary gland
c. adrenal gland
d. pineal gland

c. adrenal gland


Atrial natriuretic peptide secreted by the heart has exactly the opposite function of this hormone secreted by the zona glmerulosa
a. antidiurectic hormone
b. epinephrine
c. calcitonin
d. aldosterone
e. androgens.

d. aldosterone


Define hormone.

no data


Which type of hormone receptor-plasma membrane bound or intracellular - would be expected to provide the most long-lived response to hormone binding and why?

no data


anterior pituitary
a. location
b. hormones produced

no data


pineal gland
a. location
b. hormones produced

no data


a. location
b. hormones produced

no data


a. location
b. hormones produced

no data


a. location
b. hormones produced

no data


adrenal glands
a. location
b. hormones produced

no data


Name two endocrine glands (or regions) that are important in the stress response, and explain why they are important.

no data


The anterior pituitary is often referred to as the master endocrine organ, but it, too has a "master."

What controls the release of anterior pituitary hormones?

no data


The posterior pituitary is not really an endocrine gland. Why not?

no data


Endemic goiter is not really the result of a malfunctioing thyroid gland. What does cause it?

no data


How are the hyperglycemia and lipidemia of insulin deficiency linked?

no data


Name a hormone secreted by a muscle cell and two hormones secreted by neurons.

no data


List some problems that elderly people might have as a result of decreasing hormone production.

no data


We have a new patient to consider today. Mr. Gutterman, a 70-year-old male, was brought into the ER in a comatose state and has yet to come out of it. It is obvious that he suffered severe head trauma-- his scalp was badly lacerated, and he has an impated skul fracture. His initial lab tests (blood and urine) were within normal limits. His fracture was repaired and the folloing orders and others were given:

Check qh and record: spontaeous behavior, level of responsiveness, movements, pupil size and reaction to light, speech, and vital signs.

Turn patient q4h and maintain meticulous skin care and dryenss.

He is unconscious, the level of damage to his brain is unclear. Monitoring his responses and vital signs qh will provide information for his care providers about the extent of his injuries.

Turning q4h and providing careful skin care will prevent Decubs as well as stimulating his proprioceptive pathways.


On the second day of his hospitalization, the aide reports that Mr. Gutterman is breathing irregularly, his skin is dry and flaccid, and that she has emptied his urine reservoir several times during the day. Upon receiving this information, the MD ordered:

blood and urine tests for presence of glucose and ketones

strict I&O

Mr. Gutteman is found to be losing huge amounts of water in urine and the volume lost is being routinely replaced via IV line. Mr. Gutteman's blood and urine tests are negative for glucose and ketones.

What would you say Mr. Gutteman's hormonal problem is and what do you think caused it?

Ist life threatening?

His condition is termed diabetes insipidus, a condition in which insufficient quantities of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are produced or released.
These types of patients excrete large volumes of urine but do not have glucose or ketones present in the urine.
The head trauma could have damaged his hypothalamus, chich produces the hormone, or injured his posterior pituitary gland, which produces the hormone, or injured his posterior pituitary gland.
Which releases ADH into the bloodstream.

It is not life threatening for most pple with normal thirst mechanism. However, he is unable to tell or preform the skill on his own, and to prevent dehydration on it's own.

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