Anat Test 1

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updated 5 years ago by tkujawski99
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1

DSR

Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor
Constructs a moving 3D image of organ

2

DSA

Digital Subtraction Angiography
an XR image before and after intravenous iodine allows isolation of arteries

3

Cyberknife

XRs as treatment

4

Scintigraphy

Nuke Med
unstable radioisotopes are introduced - Iodine for thyroid

5

PET

Positron Emission Tomography
radioisotopes are more precisely localized

6

SPECT

Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography
gamma rays (gamma knife)

7

Cells

Basic living functional units of body

8

Tissues

Similar cells and their intercellular matrix

9

Organs

Made up of different tissues

10

Systems

groups of organs with common functions

11

Organism

All systems working together

12

Supinated

upper limbs hanging with palms forward

13

Prone

Face down

14

Median or Midsagittal

divides body into equal right and left sides

15

Sagittal or Parasagittal

Divides body into unequal R/L portions
Parallel to median plane

16

Frontal or Coronal plane

Divides body into anterior and posterior portions

17

Coronal suture

On top of skull split thing

18

Horizontal or Transverse plane or Cross-Section

Divides body into superior and inferior parts

19

Oblique plane

cut at an angle

20

Superior
Cephalic
Cephalad
Cranial

Toward the head

21

Inferior
Caudal
Caudad

Away from head

22

Anterior
Ventral
Venter

Front

23

Posterior
Dorsal
Dorsum

Back

24

Medial

Nearer to midline

25

Lateral

farther from midline

26

Ipsilateral

On SAME side of body

27

Contralateral

On OPPOSITE side of body

28

Proximal

Nearer to point of origin

29

Distal

Farther from point of origin

30

Parietal

Walls of a CAVITY

31

Visceral

Covering of an ORGAN

32

Plasma Membrane

Physical barrier to enclose cell
Regulates movement in and out of cell

33

Cytoplasm

Contains cytosol, viscous fluid, and organelles

34

Smooth ER

Network of membrane tubules and vesicles
NO RIBOSOMES

35

Rough ER

Flat network of membrane sacs called cisternae
Ribosomes attached

36

Golgi

Stacked series of flat smooth membrane sacs with transport vesicles

37

Lysosomes

Membrane sacs with digestive enzymes

38

Peroxisomes

Contain large amounts of specific enzymes to break down harmful substances

39

Mitochondria

DOUBLE MEMBRANE with cristae, fluid matrix contents at center

40

Ribosomes

Dense cytoplasmic granules with that can be small or large

41

Cytoskeleton

Network of protein filaments or hollow tubules throughout the cell

42

Microfilaments

Actin protein monomers

43

Intermediate filaments

Protein

44

Microtubules

Hollow cylinders of tubulin protein able to lengthen and shorten

45

Centrosome

Amorphous region adjacent to nucleus, contrains a pair of centrioles

46

Cilia

Short, membrane attached containing microtubules, occur in large numbers

47

Flagellum

Long, singular membrane extension containing microtubules

48

Microvilli

Thin membrane folds from the cell surface

49

Amorphous ground substances (GAG - glycosominoglycans)

Hyalurionic Acid
Chondroitin Sulfate
Dermatan Sulfate
Keratan Sulfate

50

Hyalurionic Acid

Lubricates joints

51

Chondroitin Sulfates

Supportive in cartilage

52

Dermatan sulfates

in skin tendons and heart valves

53

Keratan sulfate

in cornea of eye and in bones

54

Adhesion proteins - fibronectin

link components of ground substances

55

Collagenous fibers

Do no stretch
MOST ABUNDANT IN BODY
In all types of connective tissue

56

Reticular fibers

Thin and branching
Collagen with glycoprotein
Form a network around fat cells, nerves cells, muscle fibers
Forms STROMA for soft organs
Resists forces applied in different directions

57

Elastic fibers

Branching strands of elastin and fibrillin
Stretches
Gives elasticity to skin, blood vessels, and lungs

58

Hard matrix - Mineral salts of bones

Hydroxyapatite
- Tricalcium phosphate
- Calcium carbonate

59

Simple epithelium

Simple squamous
Simple cuboidal
Simple columnar

60

Simple squamous

one layer flat cells (alveoli, endothelium, mesothelium)

61

Simple cuboidal

One layer cells as tall as they are wide (thyroid gland and kidney tubules)

62

Simple columnar

Inner lining of GI tract
Taller than they are wide

63

Stratified epithelium

Stratified Squamous
Stratified cuboidal
Stratified columnar
Transitional

64

Stratified squamous

Nonkeratinizing - no keratin, alive, flat, line ORAL CAVITY
Keratinizing - keratin, dead, epidermis of skin

65

Stratified cuboidal

two or more layers
Large endocrine ducts

66

Stratified columnar

Rare
Large endocrine ducts

67

Transitional epithelium

inner lining of bladder

68

Connective Tissue (define)

- many kinds of cells scattered singly or in groups
- Alot of intercellular matrix
- have amorphous ground substance and fibers
- highly vascular

69

Connective tissue (types)

Embryonic
Mature or Proper

70

Embryonic CT

Mesenchyme
Mucous Connective Tissue or Warton's jelly

71

Mesenchyme

Stem cells

72

Mucous connective tissue (Wharton's jelly)

supports wall of umbilical cord 3months to birth

73

Mature CT (types)

Areolar (Loose)
Dense CT
Cartilage
Osseous tissue
Vascular tissue

74

Areolar or Loose CT
- many cells but loose fibers

- Loosely arranged fibers and many cells
- FIBROBLASTS produce fibers
- ground substance is most of volume
- Fibers are collagenous, elastic, and reticular
- forms hypodermis with adipose tissue

75

Loose CT (types)

Loose CT
Adipose tissue
Reticular CT

76

Adipose tissue

Cells are adipocytes for fat storage
Signet class ring
Little ground substance
White fat - insulation
Brown fat - heat production mediastinum and inguinal region

77

Reticular CT

Forms stroma of spleen liver and lymph
interlacing reticular fibers
reticular cells

78

Dense CT (Types)
- few cells but thicker fibers

Dense Regular CT
Dense Irregular CT
Elastic CT

79

Dense regular CT

Fibroblasts in rows packed tightly
Very strong
Makes up TENDONS (scanty blood supply), Aponeuroses (very white ribbons), LIGAMENTS (elastic fibers)

80

Dense irregular CT

Fibers without regular orientations
located where tensions are exerted
forms - Reticular region of dermis, periosteum of bone, perichondrium of cartilage, membrane capsules around kidneys and liver, encloses cavities of joints

81

Elastic CT

fibroblasts located in spaces between fibers
many freely branching elastic fibers
YELLOWISH
Stretches and snaps back in arteries, lungs, vocal cords, ligamentum flava of vertebrae, and suspensory ligament of penis

82

Cartilage

strong
semisolid
avascular
made of chondrocytes or cells in lacunae (spaces)
matrix is condrin
membrane around cartilage is perichondrium which contains blood vessels

83

Cartilage (Types)

Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage
Elastic cartilage

84

Hyaline Cartilage

Gristle
Most abundant cartilage in body
BLUEISH WHITE
Shiny ground substances with many fine collagen fibers
make up Articular cartilage in joints and Costal cartilage and Embryonic skeleton and Nose, larynx, trache, and bronchi

85

Fibrocartilage

Strongest cartilage
Little chondrin with many collagen bundles
Resists compression and absorbs shock
Intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis, discs in knee

86

Elastic Cartilage

Many elastic fibers
Very flexible
Epiglottis, external ear, and eustachian tubes

87

Skull bones (How many)

8 Cranial bones
14 Facial bones
22 total

88

Cranial bones (8)

Frontal bone
Occipital bone
Sphenoid bone
Ethmoid bone
Parietal bone (2)
Temporal bone (2)

89

Facial bones (14)

Vomer
Mandible
Zygomatic bones(2)
Lacrimal bones (2)
Nasal bones (2)
Inferior nasal conchae (2)
Palatine bones (2)
Maxillae (2)

90

Auditory ossicles (6) + Hyoid bone

Malleus (2)
Incus (2)
Stapes (2)

91

Vertebral column (24 or 26)

Cervical (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (1)
Coccyx (1)

92

Thoracic cage (25)

Sternum (1)
Ribs (24)

93

Bones of Appendicular Skeleton (126)

Pectoral girdles (4)
Upper limbs (60)
Pelvic girdles (2)
Lower limbs (60)

94

Bones of Axial skeleton (80)

Skull (22)
Associated bones of skull (7)
Vertebral column (26)
Thoracic cage (25)

95

Bones of pectoral girdles (4)

Clavicle (2)
Scapula (2)

96

Bones of upper limbs (60)

Humerus (2)
Radius (2)
Ulna (2)
Carpals (16)
Metacarpals (10) - no names
Phalanges (28) - Proximal phalanx (10), middle (8), distal (10)

97

Carpals (16)

Scaphoid (2)
Lunate (2)
Triquetrum (2)
Pisiform (2)
Trapezium (2)
Trapezoid (2)
Capitate (2)
Hamate (2)

98

Pelvic girdles (2)

Os coxae (2)
Ilium, ischium, and pubis bones fuse in early adolescence

99

Lower limb bones (60)

Femur (2)
Patella (2)
Tibia (2)
Fibula (2)
Tarsals (14)
Metatarsals (10)-no name
Phalanges (28) - proximal (10), middle (8), distal (10)

100

Tarsals (14)

Calcaneus (2)
Talus (2)
Navicular (2)
Cuboid (2)
Medial cuneiform (2)
Intermediate cuneiform (2)
Lateral cuneiform (2)

101

Articulating surfaces (4)

Condyle
Facet
Head
Trochlea

102

Depressions (3)

Alveolus
Fossa
Sulcus

103

Projections for tendon and ligament attachment (9)

Crest
Epicondyle
Line
Process
Ramus
Spine
Trochanter
Tubercle
Tuberosity

104

Openings and spaces (4)

Canal
Fissure
Foramen
Sinus

105

Condyle

Large smooth rounded articulating oval structure

106

Facet

Small, flat, shallow articulating surface

107

Head

Prominent, rounded epiphysis

108

Trochlea

Smooth, grooved, pulley-like articular process

109

Alveolus

Deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible

110

Fossa

Flattened or shallow depression

111

Sulcus

Narrow groove

112

Crest

Narrow, prominent, ridgelike projection

113

Epicondyle

Projection adjacent to a condyle

114

Line

Low ridge

115

Process

Any marked bony prominence

116

Ramus

Angular extension of a bone, relative to the rest of the structure (mandible)

117

Spine

Pointed, slender process

118

Trochanter

Massive, rough projection found only on the FEMUR

119

Tubercle

Small round projection

120

Tuberosity

Large, rough projection

121

Canal

Passageway through a bone

122

Fissure

Narrow, slitlike opening through a bone

123

Foramen

Rounded passageway through a bone

124

Sinus

Cavity or hollow space in a bone

125

Fracture

Any break in a bone
- Closed reduction - setting a fracture without surgery
- Open reduction - surgery to fix a fracture

126

Partial or Incomplete fracture

Break across bone is incomplete

127

Complete fracture

Bone is broken into two pieces

128

Closed (Simple) Fracture

Bone does not break skin

129

Open (Compound) Fracture

Broken bone protrudes through skin

130

Nondisplaced fracture

fractures retain the normal alignment of bone fragments

131

Displace fracture

fractures produce new and abnormal arrangements of bony elements

132

Comminuted Fracture

Small fragments of bone are found between two main fragments

133

Greenstick fracture

Only seen in children
One side of bone breaks and other bends

134

Compression Fracture

Bone is crushed

135

Impacted fracture

One fragment is driven into another

136

Colles' Fracture

Fracture of the distal en of the radius with distal fragment displaced posteriorly

137

Pott's fracture

fracture of distal end of fibula with serious injury to distal tibial articulation. Ligament attached to the medial malleolus of the tibia is town

138

Transverse fracture

Fracture breaks the bone across its axis

139

Spiral Fracture

Spread along length of the bone, produced by twisting stress

140

Epiphyseal fracture

Where chondrocytes are dying

141

Stress Fracture

Partial fracture due to changes in training, harder surfaces etc. 25% involve the dotal 1/3 of the fibula

142

Pathologic Fracture

Fracture due to weakening of a bone caused by a disease

143

Depressed Fracture

Broken bone portion is pressed inward

144

Oblique fracture

fracture at an angle

145

Hairline Fracture

Fine crack in which sections of bone remain aligned
Common in skull

146

Avulsion Fracture

Complete severing of a body part (typically toe or finger)

147

Angular motion

Flexion
Extension
Hyperextension
Lateral Flexion
ABduction
ADDuction
Circumduction

148

Rotational Motion

Pronation
Supination

149

Special Movements

Depression
Elevation
Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion
Inversion
Eversion
Protraction
Retraction
Opposition

150

Flexion

Angle between bones decreases, usually occurs in the sagittal plane
(Bicep flex)

151

Extension

Angle between bones increases, usually occurs in the sagittal plane
(arm flat)

152

Hyperextension

Extension movement continues past the anatomic position

153

Lateral flexion

The vertebral column moves in a lateral direction along a coronal plane
(Stand straight up and bend with waist to LT side)

154

ABduction

Movement AWAY from midline

155

ADDuction

Movement TOWARD the midline

156

Circumduction

A continuous movement that combines flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction in succession
(arm circles)

157

Pronation

Rotation of the forearm whereby the palm is turned posteriorly

158

Supination

Rotation of the forearm whereby the palm is turned anteriorly
(palm facing up)

159

Depression (movement)

Movement of a body part inferiorly
(downward shoulder shrug)

160

Elevation

Movement of a body part superiorly
(Shoulder shrug up)

161

Dorsiflexion

Ankle joint movement whereby the dorsum of the foot is brought closer to the anterior surface of the leg
(point your toes to your head and stretch achillies)

162

Plantar flexion

Sole of the foot is brought closer to the posterior surface of the leg
(point toes down)

163

Inversion

Twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole medially or inward
(Stand on your pinky toe or side foot)

164

Eversion

Twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole laterally or outward
(stand with ankles inward)

165

Protraction

Anterior movement of body part
(Stick out your chin)

166

Retraction

Posterior movement of body part
(Pull in your chin)

167

Opposition

Special movement of the thumb across the palm toward the fingers to permit grasping and holding of an object


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