pharmocology respirtory (test 3)

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1

Four phases of initiation and progression of TB

Transmission

Primary infection

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)

Active tuberculosis

2

Tuberculosis

Infectious disease usually affecting lungs, but may affect Lymph nodes, pleurae, bones Joints, kidneys, GI tract

3

Drug resistance not suspected until

2+ months of ineffective drug therapy

4

Active Tuberculosis Treatment

Improvement within 2 to 3 weeks

Treatment continues at least 6 months

Or 3 months after cultures become (−)

5

Primary (first-line) agents

Treat latent, active, and drug-resistant TB infection when possible

6

Second-line medications

Used for patients who are unable to tolerate first-line drugs and Infected with first-line–resistant bacilli

7

Isoniazid (INH)

Most commonly prescribed TB medication

8

Isoniazid nurse interventions

Do not take with acetaminophen. Take on empty stomach with full glass of water. Do not take with antacids. IM

9

isoniazid given with

administer pyridoxine (Vit B6) as ordered – to prevent neuropathies, ensure adherence,

10

Rifampin

Creates a synergistic effect when give with isoniazid (unless resistant) may cause harmless red-orange discoloration IV

11

Pyrazinamide

Used in combination with other TB medications:

12

Ethambutol

Used in combination with other TB medications

13

Common cold

Viral infection - 2 to 4 occurrences/year typical in adults; up to 10 occurrences/year for schoolchildren

14

Sinusitis

Inflammation of paranasal sinuses

15

Rhinitis

most common cause of sinusitis

16

Pseudoephedrine

Relieve nasal obstruction and discharge. Most often used to relieve rhinitis.Works by vasoconstriction, which shrinks the nasal mucosa membranes.

17

Dextromethrophan

Suppress dry, hacking, nonproductive cough.Depresses the cough center in the medulla

18

Guaifenesin

Liquefy respiratory secretions, allowing for easier removal. Used for productive coughs

19

Acetylcysteine

Liquefy mucus in respiratory tract; administered IH .Effective immediately after direct instillation

20

Antihistamines

First chemical mediator in immune and inflammatory response

21

Allergic Rhinitis

Inflammation of nasal mucosa caused by type I hypersensitivity reaction to inhaled allergens

22

Seasonal disease

Response to airborne pollens

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Perennial disease

Response to nonseasonal allergens

24

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

structurally related to histamine and occupy the same receptor sites as histamines, which prevents histamine from acting on target tissue.

25

Fexofenadine (Allegra)

seasonal allergic rhinitis, minor allergies, urticaria

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Rescue inhalant medications

(quick relief, short-acting drugs)

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Maintenance inhalant medications

(long-term control drugs used to achieve and maintain prophylactic control of persistent asthma)

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Albuterol

is a bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the airways and increases air flow to the lungs.

29

Ipratropium

Long term management of asthma, COPD

30

Theophylline

Used for long term treatment; not acute episodes.

31

Corticosteroids

used for acute and long term


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