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1.1 Define the science of anatomy

The study of structure and form


1.1 describe the science of anatomy


is the study of body cells and their internal structure


1.1 describe the science of anatomy

Microscopic anatomy

examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy


is the study of tissues.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy

Systemic anatomy

studies the anatomy of each functional body system.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy

Gross anatomy

also called macroscopic anatomy, investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye, such as the intestines, stomach, brain, heart, and kidneys.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy

Regional anatomy

examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy

Surface anatomy

focuses on both superficial anatomic markings and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy

Comparative anatomy

examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species


1.1 describe the science of anatomy


(path-ō-loj’ik; pathos = disease) anatomy examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy


(em’brē-ol’o-jē; embryon = young one) is the discipline concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth.


1.1 describe the science of anatomy

Radiographic anatomy

investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures, such as sonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or x-ray.


1.1 Define the science of physiology

The study of function of the body parts.


1.1 describe the science of physiology

cardiovascular physiology

examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.


1.1 describe the science of physiology

respiratory physiology

(which studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and the blood vessels),


1.1 describe the science of physiology


(which examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system),


1.1 describe the science of physiology


investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and disease or injury to that organ system


1.1 describe the science of physiology

reproductive physiology

(which explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation).


1.2 Explain how the studies of form (anatomy) and function (physiology) are interrelated.

It is difficult to study structure (anatomy) without knowledge of function (physiology). The two disciplines are typically studied together because form and function are closely related in all living things.


1.3 List and describe the characteristics common to all living things

Metabolism. All organisms engage in metabolism (change), which is defined as the sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur within the body.

-anabolism (a raising up), in which small molecules are joined to form larger molecules

-catabolism ( a casting down), in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.


1.3 List and describe the characteristics common to all living things

  • Growth and Development. During their lifetime, organisms assimilate materials from their environment and often exhibit increased size (growth) and increased specialization as related to form and function (development).

1.3 List and describe the characteristics common to all living things

  • Regulation. An organism must be able to adjust or direct internal bodily function in the face of environmental changes.
  • Responsiveness. All organisms exhibit responsiveness, which is the ability to sense and react to stimuli (changes in the external or internal environment).

1.3 List and describe the characteristics common to all living things

  • Reproduction. All organisms produce new
  • Organization. All organisms exhibit a complex structure and order cells for growth, maintenance, and repair.

1.3 Describe the levels of organization in the human body and give examples of each.

  • chemical level is the simplest level, and it involves atoms and molecules
  • Atoms are the smallest units of matter that exhibit the characteristics of an element, such as carbon and hydrogen.
  • molecule- composed of atoms or ions held together by an attraction or chemical bond.
  • More complex molecules are called macromolecules and include some proteins and the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
  • Organelle- complex, organized structures in the cytoplasm of a cell with unique characteristic shapes; called "little organ"
  • Cells- Basic structural and functional unit of a living organism.
  • Tissues- Groups of similar types of cells performing a common function for the body.
  • Organ- Composed of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function for the body.
  • Organism- A living being.

1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Integumentary system- Provides protection, regulates body temp., site of cutaneous receptors and some glands, synthesize vitamin D, prevents water loss


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Skeletal system- Provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), store calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Muscular system- Produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Nervous system- A regulatory system that controls muscles and some glands and responds to sensory stimuli. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Cardiovascular system- consists of the heart and blood vessels; the heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, gases, and pick up waste products.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Endocrine system- consist of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, which regulate development, growth and metabolism; maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume, control digestive processes, and control reproduction.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Lymphatic system- Transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and participates in an immune response when necessary.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Respiratory system- Responsible for exchanges of gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood and the air in the lungs.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Urinary system- Filters the blood to remove waste products and biologically active molecules, concentrates waste products in the form of urine, and expels urine from the body.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

Digestive system- mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products.


1.3 Compare the structures and functions of human organ systems

  • Male Reproductive system- Produces male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (testosterone), transfers sperms to the female.
  • Female Reproductive system- Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus, produces and secretes breast milk for nourishment of newborn.

1.4 Describe the anatomic position and its importance in the study of anatomy.

anatomic position stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor, the upper limbs are at the sides of the body, and the palms face anteriorly (toward the front); the head is level, and the eyes look forward toward the observe.

For accuracy and clarity,


1.4 Describe the anatomic sections and planes through the body.

  • coronal- A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts; also called frontal plane.
  • transverse plane, also called a horizontal plane or cross-sectional plane, divides the body or organ into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) parts
  • midsagittal -Vertical plane cutting the body or body part into an even left and right half. a. either to the left or right of the midsagittal plane, is termed a sagittal plane.

b. Oblique- Slanted, at an angle


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Posterior

In back of; toward the back surface

The heart is posterior to the sternum.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Dorsal

At the back side of the human body

The spinal cord is on the dorsal side of the body.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Anterior

In front of; toward the front surface

The stomach is anterior to the spinal cord.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Ventral

At the belly side of the human body

The umbilicus (navel, belly button) is on the ventral side of the body.

Relative to the head or bottom of the body


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Superior

Closer to the head

The chest is superior to the pelvis.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Inferior

Closer to the feet

The stomach is inferior to the heart.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Cranial (cephalic)

At the head end

The shoulders are cranial to the feet.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Caudal

At the rear or tail end

The buttocks are caudal to the head.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Rostral

Toward the nose or mouth

The frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the back of the head.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Medial

Toward the mid-line of the body

The lungs are medial to the shoulders.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Lateral

Away from the mid-line of the body

The arms are lateral to the heart.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Deep

On the inside, internal to another structure

The heart is deep to the rib cage.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Proximal

Closer to point of attachment to trunk

The elbow is proximal to the hand.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Superficial

On the outside

The skin is superficial to the biceps brachii muscle.


1.4 Define the different anatomic directional terms and give examples

  • Distal

Farther away from point of attach­ment to trunk

The wrist is distal to the elbow.


1.4 Identify regions of the body using proper anatomical terminology

  • Abdominal

Region inferior to the thorax (chest) and superior to the hip bones

  • Antebrachial

Forearm (the portion of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist)

  • Antecubital

Region anterior to the elbow; also known as the cubital region

  • Auricular

Visible surface structures of the ear

  • Axillary


  • Brachial

Arm (the portion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow)

  • Buccal


  • Calcaneal

Heel of the foot

  • Carpal


  • Cephalic


  • Cervical


  • Coxal


  • Cranial


  • Crural

Leg (the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle)

  • Deltoid


  • Digital

Fingers or toes (also called phalangeal)

  • Dorsal/ Dorsum


  • Facial


  • Femoral


  • Fibular

Lateral aspect of the leg

  • Frontal


  • Gluteal


  • Hallux

Great toe

  • Inguinal

Groin (sometimes used to indicate the crease or junction of the thigh with the trunk)

  • Lumbar

Relating to the loins, or the inferior part of the back, between the ribs and pelvis

  • Mammary


  • Manus


  • Mental


  • Nasal


  • Occipital

Posterior aspect of the head

  • Olecranal

Posterior aspect of the elbow

  • Oral


  • Orbital


  • Palmar

Palm (anterior surface) of the hand

  • Patellar


  • Pectoral


  • Pelvic


  • Perineal

Diamond-shaped region between the legs that contains the anus and external reproductive organs

  • Pes


  • Plantar

Sole of the foot

  • Pollex


  • Popliteal

Area posterior to the knee

  • Pubic

Anterior region of the pelvis

  • Radial

Lateral (thumb side) aspect of forearm

  • Sacral

Posterior region between the hip bones

  • Scapular

Shoulder blade

  • Sternal

Anterior middle region of the thorax

  • Sural

Calf (posterior part of the leg)

  • Tarsal

Ankle, root of the foot

  • Thoracic

Chest or thorax

  • Tibial

Medial aspect of leg

  • Ulnar

Medial aspect of the forearm

  • Umbilical


  • Vertebral

Spinal column


1.4 Describe the body cavities and their subdivisions

posterior aspect - cavities that are completely encased in bone and are physically and developmentally different from the ventral cavity.

  • cranial cavity houses the brain
  • vertebral canal houses the spinal cord

ventral cavity is the larger, anteriorly placed cavity in the body

  • partitioned by the diaphragm into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity.

1.4 explain role of serous membranes. Compare the location of parietal and visceral layers.

The organs move more smoothly against one another and the body walls.

  • line the inside of the cavity (parietal layer)
  • cover the outside of an organ (visceral layer) within the cavity.

(a) Parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium line the pericardial cavity around the heart. (b) Parietal and visceral layers of the pleura line the pleural cavity between the lungs and the chest wall. (c) Parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum line the peritoneal cavity that lies between the abdominopelvic organs and the body wall


1.4 Describe the terms used to subdivide the abdominopelvic region into regions or quadrants. Name organs found in each region or quadrant.

right upper quadrant (RUQ)

  • right lobe of liver / gallbladder/ right kidney/ portion of stomach/ small & large intestine

left upper quadrant (LUQ)

  • left lobe of liver / stomach/ pancreas/ left kidney/ spleen/ portions of large intestine

right lower quadrant (RLQ)

  • cecum/ appendix/ portions of small intestine/ reproductive organs (right ovary in females & right spermatic cord in males)./ right ureter

left lower quadrant (LLQ)

  • most of small intestine/ portions of large intestine/ left ureter

1.4 Describe the terms used to subdivide the abdominopelvic region into regions or quadrants. Name organs found in each region or quadrant.

  • The umbilical region- navel (belly button) that lies in its center.

-small intestines


1.4 Describe the terms used to subdivide the abdominopelvic region into regions or quadrants. Name organs found in each region or quadrant.

  • The epigastric (epi = above, gaster = belly) region is the superior region above the umbilical region.

-Liver -Stomach


1.4 Describe the terms used to subdivide the abdominopelvic region into regions or quadrants. Name organs found in each region or quadrant.

  • The hypogastric (pubic) (hypo = under) region lies inferior to the umbilical region.

-urinary bladder


1.4 Describe the terms used to subdivide the abdominopelvic region into regions or quadrants. Name organs found in each region or quadrant.

  • The right and left hypochondriac (chondr = cartilage) regions are inferior to the costal cartilages and lateral to the epigastric region.

right side -Liver -Gallbladder

left side -Diaphragm -Spleen


1.4 Describe the terms used to subdivide the abdominopelvic region into regions or quadrants. Name organs found in each region or quadrant.

  • The right and left lumbar regions are lateral to the umbilical region.

right side -Ascending colon of large intestine

left side -Descending colon of large intestine


1.4 Describe the terms used to subdivide the abdominopelvic region into regions or quadrants. Name organs found in each region or quadrant.

  • The right and left iliac (eileo = to twist) regions are lateral to the hypogastric region.

right side -Cecum -Appendix / left side- initial part of sigmoid colon


1.5 Define the components of a homeostatic system

Stimulus-changes in a variable that is regulated (temp., stretch in muscle)


1.5 Define the components of a homeostatic system

Receptor- structure that detects the stimulus (sensory neurons in the skin, stretch receptors in muscles).


1.5 Define the components of a homeostatic system

Control center- integrates input and initiates change through the effector (usually brain or endocrine gland)


1.5 Define the components of a homeostatic system

Effector- structure (muscle or gland) that brings about a change to the stimulus


1.5 Define the components of a homeostatic system. Give examples of each in the human body.

  • receptor (detects a change)

-light, temperature, chemicals (e.g., glucose or oxygen levels), or stretch in muscle

  • control center (interprets input from the receptor)

-the pancreas acts as a receptor because it detects an increase in blood glucose and also acts as a control center because it releases the hormone insulin in response.

  • effector (brings about a change in response to the stimulus).

-Glands, such as the pancreas, release hormones (e.g., insulin).


1.5 Define negative feedback. Describe the actions of a negative feedback loop.

negative feedback -maintained within a normal level, or what is called its set point.

  • Stimulus

cold environment lowers body temp. to below normal

  • Receptors

detect cold (receptors send temp. info. to brain)

  • Control sender

brain sensory input regarding temp. decrease to normal set point

  • Effectors

blood vessels in skin constrict, sweat glands become inactive,

skeletal muscles shiver to generate heat.

  • Homeostasis

body temp. returns to normal


1.5 Define positive feedback. Describe the actions of a positive feedback loop.

The stimulus here is reinforced to continue in the same direction until a climactic event occurs.

  • Stimulus

baby suckles at breast

  • Receptors

sensory receptors in skin of breast detect sucking; send impulse to the brain

  • Control center

brain signals pituitary to release oxytocin

  • Effectors

Breast is stimulated to eject breast milk


1.6 Explain the general relationship of maintaining homeostasis to health and disease.

homeostasis is a term that describes the many physiologic processes to maintain the health of the body. These characteristics are noted about homeostatic systems:

  • They are dynamic.
  • The control center is generally the nervous system or the endocrine system.
  • There are three components: receptor, control center, and effector.
  • They are typically regulated through negative feedback to maintain a normal value or set point.
  • It is when these systems fail that a homeostatic imbalance or disease results, ultimately threatening an individual’s survival.

2.1 Define matter, and list its three forms.

Substance that has mass and occupies space

  • solid
  • liquid
  • gas

For example, bone is a solid, blood is a liquid, and oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are gases.


2.1 Define atom and element. Diagram the structure of an atom

  • Atom- smallest particle that displays properties of an element; composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons (except in hydrogen).
  • Element- Substance composed of only one type of atom.

2.1 Identify the most common elements of the human body

Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)


2.1 Differentiate the charge, mass, and relative location of: electrons, protons, and neutrons.

  • Electrons carry a negative charge, located around the nucleus, small mass
  • protons carry a positive charge, located in the nucleus, mass 1 amu
  • nucleus are electrically neutral, located in the nucleus, mass 1 amu

Neutrons and protons each have a mass of 1 amu.


2.1 Define atomic number and average atomic mass

atomic number the number of protons

average atomic mass (or atomic weight) the weighted average of the atomic mass for all isotopes of an element.


2.1 Explain the arrangement of elements in the periodic table based on atomic number and valence number / electronegativity. State the octet rule.

Arrangement of the elements in a table according to their atomic number; elements having similar properties because of their electron arrangements compose columns in the table, while elements having the same number of valence shall compose rows in the table.

Valence shall- outer most electron shell of an atom

Octet rule- atoms to maintain an outer shell with eight electrons

Electronegativity- how they share is determined by the relative attraction each atom has for electrons


2.1 Describe an isotope. Explain how radioisotopes differ from other types of isotopes

same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons

Radioactive isotopes- unstable, heavy isotope that gives off subatomic particles, or electromagnetic energy, as it decays; radioisotopes


2.1 Define an ion. List some common ions in the body

Ions are atoms or groups of atoms with either a positive charge or a negative charge.

  • sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), hydrogen (H+), chloride (Cl−), bicarbonate (HCO3−), and phosphate .

2.2 Differentiate between cations and anions. Describe how charges are assigned to ions

Cations (positive charged ions) Anions (negatively charge ions)

Atoms with one, two, three electrons become positively charged cations. Atoms with five, six, or seven electrons become negatively charge anions. The number of electrons gained to meet the octet rule criterion namely three, two, or one.


2.2 Define an ionic bond. Describe an ionic compound of NaCl.

attraction between an anion and cation sodium atom.

loses one outer shall electron to a chlorine atoms. become sodium ion (Na+) and chlorine ion (Cl-). The oppositely charged Na+ and Cl- ions are held together by ionic bonds.


2.3 Define a molecular formula

molecular formula is the number and types of atoms composing a molecule.

EX. carbonic acid (H2CO3), contain 2 hydrogen, 1 carbon, 3 oxygen


2.3 Describe a structural formula, and explain its use in differentiating isomers

A molecule is complementary to its molecular formula and exhibits not only the numbers and types of atoms but also their arrangements within the molecule.

contain the same number and type of element, but has a different structural arrangement. Ex. glucose and galactose


2.3 Describe a covalent bond, and explain its formation

  • share electrons.

Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), and Carbon (C).

  • accounts for over 90% of the body weight
  • A hydrogen atom form covalent bonds

2.3 Explain polar and nonpolar covalent bonding

  • polar covalent bonding- share the electrons unequally
  • nonpolar covalent bonding- share the electrons equally

2.3 Describe hydrogen bonding between polar molecules.

a weak attraction formed when a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to a slightly negative atom within either the same molecule or different molecule


2.3 Define an amphipathic molecule

  • amphipathic- Molecule that contains a hydrophobic region and a hydrophilic region.
  • Molecules that contain both nonpolar and polar components are called amphipathic (amphi = both, patheia = feeling)

2.4 Describe the molecular structure of water and how water molecules form four hydrogen bonds.

Water is a polar molecule composed of one oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms

the two hydrogen atoms forms one hydrogen bond, and oxygen atom form two hydrogen bonds

(water is a polar molecule that can form four hydrogen bonds with other water molecules)


2.4 List the different properties of water and provide an example of the importance of each property within the body

a gas (water vapor), a liquid (water), and a solid (ice).

  • Transports. Substances are dissolved in water and moved throughout the body in water-based fluids (e.g., blood and lymph).
  • Lubricates. Water-based fluids located between body structures decrease friction (e.g., serous fluid between the heart and its sac, synovial fluid within joints).
  • Cushions. The force of sudden body movements is absorbed by water-based fluids (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
  • Excretes Wastes. Unwanted substances are eliminated in the body dissolved in water (e.g., urine).

2.4 Define solute, solvent and solution

Solute- Substance dissolving in a solvent.

Solvent- Substance holding a solute in solution.

Solution-a very well-mixed mixture, having the same properties throughout


2.4 Compare substances that dissolve in water with those that both dissolve and dissociate in water.

Some substances dissolve in water but do not remain intact. These substances both dissolve and dissociate , meaning that they pull apart or separate.

  • Electrolytes, which include salts, acids, and bases, dissolve and dissociate in water to a certain extent as water molecules form hydration shells around each ion.
  • Hydrophilic substances dissolve in water.
  • Hydrophobic molecules are nonpolar substances that do not dissolve in water; rather, the nonpolar molecules are “pushed” out of the water by hydrophobic exclusion.

the substances that dissolve in water (polar molecules and ions) and those that do not dissolve in water (nonpolar molecules) or that partially dissolve in water (amphipathic molecules).


2.4 Distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes

Electrolytes -Substances that both dissolve and dissociate in water, such as salts, acids, and bases, can readily conduct an electric current.

Nonelectrolytes - substances that remain intact when introduced into water, such as glucose, do not conduct an electric current


2.4 Describe the chemical interactions of nonpolar substances and water

Nonpolar substances do not form hydrogen bonds with water and are separated from water molecules by hydrophobic exclusion.

You can observe hydrophobic exclusion by placing a few drops of oil into water; the oil forms small spherical drops on the water's surface.

  • Nonpolar molecules do not dissolve in water, and so they are called hydrophobic (meaning “water-fearing”).

24 Explain how amphipathic molecules interact in water to form chemical barriers.

the polar portion of an amphipathic molecule dissolves in water, and the nonpolar portion does not. Amphipathic molecules form chemical barriers within the body, including membranes and micelles(electrically charged particle).


2.5 Describe what is formed when water dissociates

  • dissociates to form ions.

The covalent chemical bond between oxygen and either of the two hydrogen atoms in a water molecule spontaneously breaks apart at a low rate

Equal numbers of positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) and negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH−) are produced from the dissociation of water.


2.5 Explain the difference between an acid and a base

Acids increase Base decrease the hydrogen ion concentration in solution.

  • Acids release hydrogen ions into solution
  • Base removes hydrogen ions from solution

2.5 Define pH, and explain the relative pH values of acids and bases

  • pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration in solution. pH value are inversely related to hydrogen ion concentration.

Solutions with a pH- below 7 are acidic (0-6), and solutions with a pH above 7 are basic (8-14), or alkaline. neutral is 7


2.5 Define neutralization, and describe how the neutralization of both an acid and a base occur.

Neutralization is the return of an acidic or basic solution to neutral.

  • The neutralization of an acidic solution is accomplished by adding a base, whereas a basic solution is neutralized by adding an acid

2.5 Describe the action of a buffer

A buffer helps prevent pH changes by “absorbing” and “releasing” hydrogen ions.


2.6 Compare and contrast the three different types of water mixtures. Define emulsion.

  • Suspension. does not remain mixed together unless it is in motion.
  • Colloid. a mixture composed of protein within water. unlike a suspension, remains mixed when not in motion.
  • Solution. it dissolves in water.

Emulsion are a type of suspension formed by water and a liquid nonpolar substance when it is agitated


2.7 Differentiate between an organic molecule and an inorganic molecule.

organic molecule- Molecule containing carbon atoms; carbohydrates, proteins, lipids.

  • Organic molecules are defined as molecules that contain carbon (e.g., methane, glucose). Most organic molecules are a component of living organisms or have been produced from them.
  • Inorganic moleculess a substance that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen. including water, salts (e.g., sodium chloride), acids (e.g., carbonic acid), and bases (e.g., sodium hydroxide).

2.7 Describe the general chemical composition of biomolecules.

Biomolecules always contain carbon, hydrogen, and generally oxygen. Some biomolecules may also have one or more of the following: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or sulfur (S).


2.7 Explain the relationship between monomers and polymers.

Polymers are molecules that are made up of repeating subunits called monomers , and each monomer is either identical or similar in its chemical structure. Some important carbohydrates (e.g., glycogen, starch), nucleic acids, and proteins are polymers, whereas lipids are not


2.7 Describe the role of water in both dehydration and hydrolysis reactions in altering biomolecules.

  • During the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler subunits, one specific subunit loses an —H, and the other subunit loses an —OH, to form a water molecule as a new covalent bond is produced. This type of reaction is called dehydration (de = away, hydro = water) synthesis or condensation because the equivalent of a water molecule is “lost” from the original structures
  • During the breakdown of complex molecules, H2O molecules are split. An —H is added to one subunit, and an —OH is added to another subunit in the complex molecule, and the chemical bond is broken between them. Because the equivalent of water is added to digest the molecule, this process is referred to as hydrolysis (hī-dro′i-sis; lysis = destruction) or a hydrolysis reaction.

2.7 Describe the general characteristics of a lipid.

Lipids are the only category of biomolecules that are not polymers, because they are not formed from repeating monomers. Rather, they are a very diverse group of fatty, water-insoluble (hydrophobic) molecules that function as stored energy, components of cellular membranes, and hormones.


2.7 identify the four types of lipids and their physiologic roles

  • Triglycerides are composed of glycerol and three fatty acids and are generally used for long-term energy storage.
  • Phospholipids (Membranes) are made up of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate functional group with various organic groups attached to it. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules containing a polar head and two nonpolar tails that form membranes.
  • Steroids (Ringed Structures Including Some Hormones) are distinct multiringed structures formed predominantly of hydrocarbons and include cholesterol, steroid hormones, and bile salts.
  • Eicosanoids (Locally Acting Hormones) are modified 20-carbon fatty acids that are synthesized as needed from arachidonic acid, a common component of plasma membranes. Eicosanoids act locally.
  • Other lipids include glycolipids and fat-soluble vitamins.

2.7 Describe the distinguishing characteristics of carhohydrates

Carbohydrates are molecules with the following chemical formula: (CH2O)n. Carbohydrates exist in increasing levels of complexity that include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.


2.7 Explain the relationship between glucose and glycogen

Glucose is the most common monosaccharide in the human body and is used for energy. When in excess, glucose is stored as the polysaccharide called glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle tissue.


2.7 Name some monosaccharide, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.

  • monosaccharides galactose, fructose, ribose, and deoxyribose
  • disaccharides sucrose, lactose, and maltose
  • polysaccharides glycogen, starch, and cellulose.

2.7 Describe the general structure of a nucleic acid.

  • Nucleic acids include deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), polymers formed from nucleotide monomers. These molecules ultimately determine the type of proteins synthesized by cells.
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency molecule of a cell.

2.7 Describe the structure of a nucleotide

nucleotide- Building blocks of DNA and RNA; composed of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar.

  • Both DNA and RNA are polymers composed of nucleotide
  • These monomers are linked together through covalent bonds between one nucleotide monomer and an adjacent nucleotide monomer. This covalent linkage is called a phosphodiester bond.

2.7 Distinguish between DNA and RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a single-stranded nucleic acid located both within the cell nucleus and within the cytoplasm of the cell. The nucleotides that are part of RNA molecules are composed of the sugar ribose, a phosphate, and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil. RNA does not contain thymine.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a double-stranded nucleic acid; it can be found as a component of chromosomes within the nucleus. A small circular strand of DNA is also within mitochondria. The nucleotides that form DNA have a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine. Notice that DNA does not contain uracil. The double strands of nucleic acid are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between complementary nitrogenous bases: thymine with adenine and guanine with cytosine.


2.7 Describe ATP and explain why it is called the "energy currency" of a cell

adenosine triphosphate- Stores and releases chemical energy in a cell; composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups.

It is composed of the nitrogenous base adenine, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups covalently linked. ATP is the central molecule in the transfer of chemical energy within cells. Biologists often refer to this molecule as the “energy currency” of a cell.

The covalent phosphate bond linkages between the last two phosphate groups are unique, energy-rich bonds. ATP is stored in all cells in limited amounts and is produced continuously. It is generally used immediately. When ATP molecules are split into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate, energy is released. This energy is then used by the cell (e.g., muscle contraction).


2.7 List the general functions of proteins

  • Serve as catalysts (enzymes) in most metabolic reactions of the body
  • Act in defense, which occurs, for example, when immunoglobulins (antibodies) attach to foreign substances for their elimination
  • Aid in transport, such as hemoglobin molecules transporting respiratory gases within the blood
  • Contribute to structural support, such as collagen, a major component of ligaments and tendons
  • Cause movement, when myosin and actin proteins interact during contraction of muscle tissue
  • Perform regulation, such as occurs when insulin helps control blood glucose levels
  • Provide storage, such as ferritin, which stores iron in liver cells

2.7 Describe the general structure of amino acids and proteins

Amino acids are linked covalently by peptide bonds that form during dehydration synthesis reactions between the amine functional group of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid functional group of a second amino acid.

Proteins are polymers composed of one or more linear strands of amino acid monomers that may number in the thousands. Twenty different amino acids are normally found in the proteins of living organisms.

Each amino acid has both an amine (—NH2) functional group and a carboxyl (—COOH) functional group, which is also called a carboxylic acid functional group. Both functional groups are covalently linked to the same carbon atom, which accounts for the general name “amino acid” for these monomers.


2.8 Distinguish between the four structural hierarchy levels of proteins

Protein organization includes the primary, secondary, tertiary structures—and a quaternary structure if there are two or more protein chains. These levels of organization ultimately determine the structure and function of a protein.


2.8 Explain what is meant by denaturation and list factors that can cause it.

Denaturation usually results in the loss of biological activity of a protein in response to the change in its three-dimensional shape that may have occurred through an increase in temperature or a change in pH.


3.1 Define energy. Distinguish between potential and kinetic energy and identify the various forms of each. include examples of each form.

Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. Energy differs from ­matter in that it has no mass and does not take up space.

­Potential energy is the energy of position or stored energy. ­Kinetic energy is the energy of motion

  1. A bow and arrow also provides an example of an energy conversion from potential energy to kinetic energy. When the arrow is pulled back in the bow, it has potential energy because of the tension of the bowstring.
  2. This potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as the string is released and the arrow flies. The kinetic energy of the flying arrow can do work when it knocks an apple from a tree.

Energy exists in different forms, including chemical, electrical, mechanical, sound, radiant, and heat.

Chemical energy is one form of potential energy


3.1 State the first law and second law of thermodynamics

  • The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.
  • The second law of thermodynamics states that some energy is lost as heat with every energy conversion.

3.2 Define metabolism. Explain what occurs in a chemical reaction.

Metabolism is the collective term for all biochemical reactions that occur within the human body; these include the processes of both catabolism and anabolism.

  • A chemical reaction occurs when chemical bonds in an existing molecular structure are broken and new ones formed to produce a different structure.

3.2 Describe the three classifications of chemical reactions

(1) changes in chemical structure

(2) changes in chemical energy

(3) whether the reaction is irreversible or reversible.


3.2 Distinguish between catabolism and anabolism

  • Catabolism involves complex molecules being broken down, or digested, into simpler molecules.
  • Anabolism is the reverse reaction, namely synthesis or the building of complex molecules from simple molecules.

3.2 Explain ATP cycling and summarize the general reversible reaction

  • (a) The high-energy chemical bond of ATP is formed by a dehydration reaction between ADP and Pi (phosphate). Energy is required and is supplied by the energy-releasing oxidation of fuel molecules.
  • (b) The high-energy chemical bond of ATP is split by hydrolysis to form ADP and Pi.

An irreversible reaction involves reactants converted to product at a rate that yields a net loss of reactants and a net gain in product. Many reactions are irreversible, and are written with the arrow to the right:

reversible reaction no net change in concentration in either reactants or products, and the reaction is in a state of equilibrium. The relationship of the reactants and products in a reversible reaction is shown with arrows in both directions:


3.2 Explain activation energy

Activation energy is the energy required to break existing chemical bonds for the chemical reaction to proceed.


3.3 Describe the general function of enzymes. Interpret graphs showing the effects of catalysts on reaction rate.

Enzymes are biologically active catalysts that increase reaction rates by lowering activation energy.


3.3 Describe the key structural components of enzymes

Generally, enzymes are globular proteins with an active site that bind a specific substrate.


3.3 Explain the steps by which an enzyme catalyzes a reaction

  1. The substrate enters the active site of the enzyme, and the enzyme temporarily binds with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex.
  2. Entry of the substrate into the active site induces the conformation (structure) of the enzyme to change slightly, resulting in an even closer fit between substrate and enzyme. This response is referred to as the induced-fit model of enzyme function. The interaction is analogous to giving someone a hug.
  3. Stress on chemical bonds in the substrate molecule is caused by the change in enzyme shape. Consequently, this stress lowers Ea, and the bonds in the substrates are more easily broken, permitting new chemical bonds to be formed.
  4. The newly formed molecule, now called the product, is released from the enzyme. The enzyme is then free to repeat the process again and again with other substrates.

3.3 Distinguish between a metabolic pathway and a multienzyme complex.

  • A metabolic pathway involves numerous enzymes that subsequently convert a substrate to a final product. Metabolic pathways are regulated by negative feedback to maintain the needed amount of the final product.
  • A multienzyme complex is a structure composed of enzymes physically linked to convert a substrate to a final product.
  • Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group, and dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate group. This is a common means of regulating enzymes.

3.4 Summarize the chemical breakdown of glucose

  • Glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and does not require oxygen. Energy is transferred to form 2 ATP molecules (net) and 2 NADH molecules. If sufficient oxygen is available, the pyruvate formed enters a mitochondrion and is further metabolized in the intermediate stage and the citric acid cycle.
  • The intermediate stage. The intermediate stage occurs in a mitochondrion. It involves a multienzyme complex that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA and 1 CO2 molecule. Energy is transferred to form 1 NADH molecule. Remember, one NADH molecule is formed per pyruvate entering the intermediate stage. Recall that two pyruvates are produced from one glucose molecule. Thus, the intermediate stage must occur twice—so a total of 2 NADH molecules are formed from the original glucose molecule.
  • The citric acid cycle. The citric acid cycle also occurs in a mitochondrion and completes the breakdown of glucose. Two CO2 molecules are produced per turn of the cycle. Energy is transferred during this process to form 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2. Remember, this reflects the energy transferred per each acetyl CoA entering the citric acid cycle. Two acetyl CoA molecules are produced from one glucose molecule. Thus, the citric acid cycle must occur twice—so a total of 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2 are formed from the original glucose molecule.

4.1 Describe the range in size of human cells

Although some cells are round or cubelike, other cells are flat, cylindrical, oval, or quite irregular in shape.


4.1 Describe the three main structural features of a cell

nucleus, plasma membrane, and cytoplasm (composed of cytosol, organelles, and perhaps cell inclusions).


4.1 Explain the general functions that a cell must perform

All cells must maintain their integrity and shape, obtain nutrients and form chemical building blocks, dispose of wastes, and if possible, replace cells.


4.2 List the lipid components of the plasma membrane, and explain the actions of each component.

phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids

  • The plasma membrane is composed of a bilayer of phospholipids with embedded cholesterol molecules. Glycolipids are lipids with carbohydrates extending from the outer surface of the cell.

4.2 Differentiate between the two types of membrane proteins based on their relative positions in the plasma membrane. Name the six major roles played by membrane proteins.

  • integral -are embedded within, and extend across, the phospholipid bilayer
  • peripheral-are not embedded within the lipid bilayer.

The major functional categories of plasma membrane proteins include the several types of transport proteins (e.g., channels, carriers, pumps), cell surface receptors, identity markers, enzymes, anchoring sites for the cytoskeleton, and cell-adhesion proteins.


4.3 Explain the energy requirements of passive versus active transport.

  • Passive processes do not require cellular energy expenditure. Instead they simply depend upon the kinetic energy inherent within a substance as it moves down its concentration gradient (i.e., from where there is more of a substance to where there is less). Diffusion and osmosis are the two major types of passive processes.
  • Active processes differ because they require cells to expend energy. This involves either a substance being pumped up its concentration gradient (i.e., from where there is less of a substance to where there is more) or the release (or formation) of a membrane-bound vesicle.

4.3 Summarize the general concept of diffusion.

Diffusion is the movement of a solute from an area where it is more concentrated to an area where it is less concentrated.


4.3 Distinguish between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion that occur in cells

  • Simple diffusion is the unassisted movement of small nonpolar molecules through the phospholipid bilayer.

4.3 Describe the two types of facilitated diffusion and give examples of each.

  • Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion is the transport of ions through channels that are either always open (leak channels), or they open and close as a result of a stimulus (gated channels).
  • Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion is the transport of small polar molecules through a carrier that is induced to change shape to move the molecules across the plasma membrane.

4.3 Define osmosis. Define osmotic pressure.

  • Osmosis is the passive movement of water across a semipermeable membrane down a water concentration gradient.
  • Osmotic pressure is the pressure exerted by the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane due to a difference in solution concentration; the greater the difference, the greater the osmotic pressure.

4.3 Describe the relationship of osmosis and tonicity. Describe the effect of hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solution on a cell.

The ability of a solution to change the volume or pressure (or the “tone”) of the cell by osmosis is called tonicity.

(a) In an isotonic solution there is no net movement of water. The cell shape remains unchanged.

(b) In a hypotonic solution, water moves into the cell.

(c) In a hypertonic solution, water moves out of the cell


4.3 Predict the movement of solutes and solvents across a membrane given specific concentrations.

Iso means “same as.” The solute concentration of an isotonic solution is the same as that of the cytosol, and so there is no net movement of water.

Hypo means “under.” The solute concentration of a hypotonic solution is lower than that of the cytosol, and so there is relatively more water in the solution and water moves into the cell.

Hyper means “more than.” The solute concentration of a hypertonic solution is higher than that of the cytosol, and so there is relatively less water in the solution and water moves out the cell.


4.3 Compare and contrast primary and secondary active transport. Give examples of each.

active transport are primary active transport, which obtains its energy directly from ATP; and secondary active transport, which is “powered” by the movement of a second substance (usually sodium ion) down its gradient.


4.3 Explain the difference between exocytosis and endocytosis.

Exocytosis moves material out of a cell, and endocytosis moves substances into a cell.


4.3 Differentiate phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis

Phagocytosis (phago = to eat) means cellular eating.

-white blood cell engulfs and digests a microbe

Pinocytosis (pineo = to drink) is known as cellular drinking.

-the cell internalizes droplets of interstitial fluid that contain dissolved solutes

Receptor-mediated endocytosis uses receptors on the plasma membrane to bind molecules within the interstitial fluid and bring the molecules into the cell.


4.6 List the membrane-bound organelles of a typical human cell. Describe the structure and main function(s) of each.

  • Membrane-bound organelles are surrounded by a membrane that separates the organelle’s contents from the cytosol so that the specific activities of the organelle can proceed without being disrupted by other cellular activities.
  • The membrane-bound organelles include the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. They are involved in various forms of metabolic processes, including synthesis and degradation processes that occur within a cell.

4.6 List the non-membrane-bound organelles of a typical human cell. Describe the structure and main function(s) of each

Non-membrane-bound organelles are composed of either protein alone or protein and RNA; they include ribosomes, the cytoskeleton, centrosomes with centrioles, and proteasomes.


4.6 Distinguish between cilia and flagella. Describe the function of microvilli.

  • Cilia and flagella are extensions of the plasma membrane supported by microtubules; cilia sweep materials along the cell’s outer surface; a flagellum, located only on sperm, moves the sperm through the female reproductive tract.
  • Microvilli are extensions of the plasma membrane supported by microfilaments, which serve to increase cell surface area for more efficient membrane transport.

4.7 Describe the nuclear envelope. Explain the structure and function of a nucleolus.

  • The nuclear envelope is a double phospholipid bilayer that serves as the boundary between nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.
  • A cell typically contains one nucleolus within its nucleus. It is a structure responsible for synthesizing the large and small subunits of ribosomes.

4.7 Describe the relationship of DNA, chromatin, and genes.

  • DNA is wrapped around histone proteins and packaged as chromatin.
  • Chromatin is supercoiled into chromosomes only when a cell is proceeding through cell division.
  • DNA contains functional units called genes; a gene is a segment of DNA that carries instructions for making a specific protein

4.8 List the required structures for transcription.

The nucleus and ribosomes are required to synthesize proteins, a process that involves transcription and translation.

Transcription: Synthesizing RNA

  • RNA is formed from DNA through transcription, a process that occurs in the nucleus and requires DNA, free ribonucleotides, and the enzyme RNA polymerase.
  • DNA is the major structure required in transcription. DNA serves as the template to form an RNA molecule

4.8 Explain the three steps of transcription.

Initiation. DNA is unwound by enzymes to expose a segment of a gene; RNA polymerase attaches to promoter region of the gene.

Elongation. RNA polymerase assists with complementary base pairing of free ribonucleotides with exposed bases of the template strand of DNA. Hydrogen bonds form between bases of DNA and the newly forming RNA molecule; this process continues as RNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand.

Termination. RNA polymerase reaches the terminal region of the gene; newly formed RNA strand is released from the DNA strand. Transcription is complete and DNA finishes rewinding into a double helix.


4.8 List the required structures for translation

Translation requires ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA, and large numbers of free amino acids. Protein is the product formed.

  • The process of translation uses the information in the mRNA to direct protein synthesis. (a) Translation occurs at ribosomes (composed of protein and rRNA) and requires both messenger RNA and transfer RNA. (b) Amino acids are the building blocks used to produce the newly formed protein molecule.

4.8 Name the three functional forms of RNA. Explain what is meant by codon.

  • mRNA, or messenger RNA, that serve as temporary copies of the information found in DNA;
  • rRNA, or ribosomal RNA, that serve as structural components of protein-making structures known as ribosomes; and finally,
  • tRNA, or transfer RNA, that ferry amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled

The mRNA is read three nucleotide bases at a time. Each three-base unit is called a codon.


4.8 Describe the three steps of translation. Describe the base pairing rules.

  • Initiation: The ribosome assembles around the target mRNA. The first tRNA is attached at the start codon.
  • Elongation: The tRNA transfers an amino acid to the tRNA corresponding to the next codon. ...
  • Termination: When a stop codon is reached, the ribosome releases the polypeptide.

DNA and RNA on the formation of hydrogen bonds among the four purine and pyrimidine bases such that adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine.


4.9 Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis and the types of cells that undergo each.

  • Mitosis is one of two types of dividing a nucleus during cell division that occurs in cells.
  • Cell division involving mitosis produces two identical cells when one divides, and is a necessary process for development, tissue growth, replacement of old or dying cells, and tissue repair.

4.9 Analyze the interrelationships among chromatin, chromosomes and chromatids.

The major structures required in cell replication are chromatin (chromosomes), centrioles, free deoxyribonucleotides, and the enzyme DNA polymerase.


4.9 Summarize the phase of the cell cycle and the activities that occur in each.

The cell cycle consists of a series of changes the cell undergoes between its formation and the time it divides into two identical cells, called daughter cells. It is divided into two major phases: interphase and mitotic phase.

interphase- First phase of the cell cycle during which the cell carries out normal activities and prepares for cell division.


4.9 Name and explain the four main stage of mitosis,


  • chromosomes appear due to coiling of chromatin.
  • nucleolus break down.
  • spindle fibers begin to form from centrioles.
  • centrioles move towards opposing cell poles.
  • nuclear envelope breaks down at the end of the stage.


  • spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes extending from the centrioles.
  • chromosome are aligned at the equatorial plate of the cell by spindle fibers.


  • sister chromatids are separated by spindle fibers and moved towards opposite ends of the cell.
  • during the process centromeres that held sister chromatids together separates; each sister chromatid is now a chromosome with its own centromere.
  • cytokinesis begins


  • chromosome uncoil to form chromatin.
  • a nucleolus reforms within each nucleus.
  • spindle fibers break up and disappear.
  • new nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes
  • cytokinesis continues as cleavage furrow deepens.

4.9 Explain the function of cytokinesis.

  • begins early and overlaps with anaphase and telophase of mitosis.
  • A ring of microfilament proteins on the inner surface of the cell's plasma membrane contracts at the cell's equator.
  • It pinches the mother cell into two separate cells in a manner analogous to the tightening of a belt. The resulting cleavage furrow that appears indicates where the cytoplasm is dividing.
  • Two new daughter cells are formed and cell division is complete.

Clinical views: Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if cells could not maintain homeostasis. Explain specific disorder and disease states related to cellular components.



5.0 Define Histology

study of tissues


5.1 Describe the common features of epithelial tissue, identify the apical, basal and lateral surfaces.

  • Cellularity. Epithelial tissue is composed almost entirely of tightly packed cells.
  • Polarity. An epithelium has an apical (āp′i-kăl) surface (free, or superficial), which is exposed either to the external environment or to some internal body space -The apical surface may have either microvilli or cilia

each epithelium has a basal (bā′săl) surface (a fixed or deep surface), where the epithelium is attached to the underlying connective tissue.


5.1 Explain the four functions that may be served by epithelial tissues.

  • Physical protection. Epithelial tissues protect both external and internal surfaces from dehydration, abrasion, and destruction by physical, chemical, or biological agents.
  • Selective permeability. All substances that enter or leave the body must pass through an epithelium, and thus epithelial cells act as “gatekeepers.” An epithelium typically exhibits a range of permeability; it may be relatively non-permeable to some substances, while promoting and assisting the passage of other ions and molecules.
  • Secretions. Some epithelial cells are specialized to produce and release secretions. Individual gland cells may be scattered among other cell types in an epithelium or arranged in small, organized clusters within a gland (see section 5.1d).
  • Sensations. Epithelial tissues are innervated by sensory nerve endings to detect changes in the external environment at the epithelial surface. These nerve endings—and those in the underlying connective tissue—continuously relay sensory input to the nervous system concerning touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. Additionally, several organs contain a specialized epithelium, called a neuroepithelium, that houses specific cells responsible for the senses of sight, taste, smell, hearing, and equilibrium (as described in chapter 16).

5.1 Name the classes of epithelia based on cell layers and cell shapes.

  • Epithelia are classified by the number of cell layers and the shape of the surface (apical) cells.
  • A simple epithelium has only one layer of cells that is in direct contact with the basement membrane; a stratified epithelium has two or more layers of cells and only the deepest (basal) layer is in direct contact with the basement membrane.
  • Examples of cell shape include squamous (cells are flattened), cuboidal (cells are about as tall as they are wide), and columnar (cells are taller than they are wide).
  • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium appears stratified but is not; all cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
  • Transitional epithelium contains several layers of rounded cells, and the epithelium appearance changes between a relaxed and distended state.

5.1 Give examples of each type of epithelium and explain how form relates to function.



5.1 Define glands. Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands.

Glands are either individual cells or multicellular organs composed predominantly of epithelial tissue. They secrete substances either for use elsewhere in the body or for elimination from the body.

Glandular secretions may include mucin, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes, or urea (a nitrogenous waste produced by the body).

  • Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood, whereas exocrine glands secrete their products onto the epithelial surface.
  • Multicellular glands may be classified either by anatomic form (simple vs. compound and tubular vs. acinar) or physiologically by their method of secretion (merocrine, apocrine, or holocrine).

5.2 Describe the three components of connective tissues.

cells, protein fibers, and ground substance

Together, the ground substance and the protein fibers it houses form an extracellular matrix.

The specific types of cells may vary between the various classes of connective tissue.


5.2 Give examples of resident cells and wandering cells in connective tissue proper.

Resident cells are stationary cells that are permanently housed within the connective tissue. They help support, maintain, and repair the extracellular matrix. Examples of resident cells include the following:

  • Fibroblasts (fī′brō-blast; fibra = fiber, blastos = germ) are relatively flat cells with tapered ends and are the most abundant resident cells in connective tissue proper. They produce the fibers and ground substance components of the extracellular matrix.
  • Adipocytes (ad′i-pō-sīt; adip = fat), also called fat cells, appear in small clusters within some types of connective tissue proper. If large clusters of these cells dominate an area, the connective tissue is called adipose connective tissue.
  • Mesenchymal cells (me-seng′ki-mal) are a type of embryonic stem cell within connective tissue. If the tissue becomes damaged, these cells will divide. One cell that is produced replaces the mesenchymal stem cell, while the other cell becomes a committed cell that moves into the damaged area and differentiates into the type of connective tissue cell that is needed. (More discussion about stem cells is in the Clinical View: “Stem Cells” in section 5.6b.)
  • Fixed macrophages are relatively large, irregular-shaped cells that are derived from a type of white blood cell called a monocyte (see section 18.3c). They are dispersed throughout the matrix, where they phagocytize (engulf) damaged cells or pathogens. When they encounter foreign materials, the cells also release chemicals that stimulate the immune system and attract numerous wandering cells to the tissue.

Wandering cells continuously move throughout the connective tissue proper and are components of the immune system (see chapter 22). They also may help repair damaged extracellular matrix. These cells are primarily types of leukocytes (lū′kō-sīt; leukos = white), also known as white blood cells, and protect the body against harmful agents. Examples of wandering cells and their specific functions include the following:

  • Mast cells are small, mobile cells that usually are found close to blood vessels; they secrete heparin to inhibit blood clotting and histamine to dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow, which is significant in the inflammatory response.
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  • Plasma cells are formed when B-lymphocytes are activated by exposure to foreign materials. Plasma cells produce antibodies, which are proteins that immobilize a foreign material and prevent it from causing further damage.
  • Free macrophages are mobile, phagocytic cells that wander through the connective tissue. They function like fixed macrophages, yet they are able to move throughout the tissue.
  • Other leukocytes also migrate through the blood vessel walls into the connective tissue. These include neutrophils, a type of leukocyte that phagocytizes bacteria, and T-lymphocytes, a type of leukocyte which attacks foreign materials.

5.2 Name three types of protein fibers found in connective tissues.

collagen fibers, reticular fibers, and elastic fibers.


5.2 Define ground substance and identify three types of molecules that may be found in it.

Ground substance is a noncellular material produced by the connective tissue cells, and it is within this ground substance that the connective tissue cells and protein fibers reside. The ground substance may be viscous (as in blood), semisolid (as in cartilage), or solid (as in bone). Together, the ground substance and the protein fibers it houses form an extracellular matrix.

  • Glycosaminoglycans a polysaccharide that is composed completely of carbohydrate building blocks, some of which have an attached amine group. GAGs are negatively charged and hydrophilic. The negative charges attract cations, such as sodium (Na+), and as a result water follows the movement of the positive ion. Thus, GAGs are able to attract and absorb water
  • proteoglycan repel each other and cause the molecule to spread out and occupy more space.
  • adherent glycoproteins (proteins with carbohydrates attached; see section 4.2b), which act like glue to bond connective tissue cells and fibers to the ground substance.

5.2 Describe the functions of connective tissues.

Connective tissue provides physical protection, support, structural framework, binding of structures, storage, transport, and immune protection.


5.2 Compare and contrast mesenchyme and mucous connective tissues.



Ground substance is a viscous fluid with some immature protein fibers; mesenchymal cells are stellate or spindle-shaped


Common origin for all other connective tissue types


Throughout the body of the embryo and fetus

mucous connective tissue


Mesenchymal cells scattered within a viscous ground substance; immature protein fibers are more abundant here than in mesenchyme


Support of structures in umbilical cord


Umbilical cord of fetus


5.2 Distinguish the types of connective tissue and the locations where each type is found.

  • Loose connective tissue has a high volume of ground substance; it is easily distorted and serves to cushion shocks.
  • Dense connective tissue consists primarily of large amounts of protein fibers and relatively little ground substance.
  • Supporting connective tissue (cartilage and bone) provides support and protection to the soft tissues and organs of the body.
  • Fluid connective tissue (blood) contains formed elements, dissolved protein fibers, and a watery ground substance.

5.3 Compare the structure, function and location of each type of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.

  • Skeletal muscle tissue is composed of long, cylindrical, multinucleated fibers that are striated. The nuclei are at the periphery of the fiber, and the tissue is under voluntary control.
  • Cardiac muscle tissue is located in the heart wall. Its cells are branched, short, striated, and contain one or two centrally located nuclei. The tissue is under involuntary control.
  • Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of internal organs; cells are fusiform (spindle-shaped), contain one centrally located nucleus, have no striations, and are under involuntary control

5.4 Compare the structure, function and location of neurons and glial cells

  • Nervous tissue contains neurons and glial cells, and forms the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
  • Neurons receive stimuli and transmit nerve impulses.
  • Glial cells support, protect, and nourish the neurons.

5.5 Describe the structure, function and location of mucous, serous, cutaneous, and synovial membranes.

  • Body membranes line body cavities, cover the viscera, or cover the external surface of the body.
  • Mucous membranes secrete mucus and line body cavities that communicate with the exterior.
  • Serous membranes secrete serous fluid and line internal cavities that do not open to the exterior.
  • The cutaneous membrane is the skin, and it protects internal body structures.
  • Synovial membranes secrete synovial fluid and line the inner surfaces of synovial joint cavities.

5.6 List some changes that occur in tissues with age.

When tissues age, repair and maintenance become less efficient, and the structure of many tissues is altered.


Clinical views: Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if the tissues system could not maintain homeostasis. Explain specific disorders and disease states related to tissues.


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