141 notecards = 36 pages (4 cards per page)
After Joe has a stroke, his doctor asks Joe to touch his right pointer finger to his chin—but Joe is unable to move his right hand. However, when the doctor stimulates Joe's pointer finger with a painful stimulus, Joe's muscles quickly move his hand away from the stimulus. The doctor concludes that ______.
based on the doctor's observations, none of the listed answers are correct conclusions
A patient reports that she has become completely deaf—she can't hear anything. Thorough tests on her ears indicate that her ears have not been damaged. Additional tests reveal that her deafness has been caused by damage to her ______.
None of the listed responses is correct.
At age 79, Mrs. X is diagnosed with a disorder that severely impairs her logical judgment. Medical imaging techniques show that this has been most likely caused by brain damage in a ______.
Which of the following hypothalamic control centers would you predict is the LEAST important for survival?
Specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific areas called domains, whereas memory and language have overlapping domains.
The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system.
The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate.
The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant.
The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain.
The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro.
A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei.
Projection fibers in the brain mainly connect the right and left hemispheres.
The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space.
One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.
Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus.
Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain.
Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________.
The arbor vitae refers to ________.
cerebellar white matter
The brain stem consists of the ________.
midbrain, medulla, and pons
The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.
What cells line the ventricles of the brain?
The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.
Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?
Which of the following best describes the cerebrum?
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.
Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?
The hemispheres are exactly equal in function.
The central sulcus separates which lobes?
frontal from parietal
Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
Which of the following is not a role of the basal nuclei?
initiating protective reflex actions
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.
The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.
Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.
pyramidal and corticospinal
Broca's area ________.
is considered a motor speech area
Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?
The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.
metabolic waste such as urea
All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.
The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________.
Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
loss of proprioception
Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________.
Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.
Which of the following is (are) involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?
White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations except the ________.
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.
Which letter indicates the primary visual cortex?
Region A includes which of the following?
The groove indicated by C is the _____________.
Which of the following is NOT associated with region B?
The cortical regions indicated by E are involved in which functions?
The production and interpretation of language.
The letter A in the above figure represents which of the following structures?
What structure is indicated by B?
Which of the following describes the specific projection fibers indicated by C?
upper motor neurons
Nuclei relating to the startle reflex are located in the corpora quadrigemina of the midbrain.
The three basic regions of the cerebrum are the cerebral cortical gray matter, internal white matter, and the superior and inferior colliculi.
Commissural fibers connect the cerebrum to the diencephalon.
Which brain nucleus is the body's "biological clock"?
If the caudal portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly the ________.
spinal cord may be affected
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
Damage to the primary motor cortex results only in the loss of both voluntary muscle control and reflexes.
The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.
visceral sensory area
Which part of the brain is the "executive suite" for all brain activity?
Which parts of the brain constitute the "emotional brain" known as the limbic system?
cerebral and diencephalic structures
Which type of white matter fiber tract connects the two cerebral hemispheres?
Which part of the brain is considered the "gateway" to the cerebral cortex?
Which of the following best describes the hypothalamus?
visceral control center of the body
Which part of the brain stem houses the reflex centers for respiration and cardiovascular functioning?
Which part of the brain processes inputs received from the cerebral motor cortex, brain stem nuclei, and various sensory receptors, and then uses this information to coordinate somatic motor output so that smooth, well-timed movements occur?
The middle primary brain vesicle, the mesencephalon, gives rise to which adult brain structure?
Which of the following is true of the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain?
The cerebral hemispheres account for about 83% of total brain mass.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of functional areas within the cerebral cortex?
Which of the following are motor areas of the cerebral cortex that lie in the posterior part of the frontal lobes and control voluntary movement?
primary motor cortex; premotor cortex; Broca's area; frontal eye field
Which of the following areas of the brain is responsible for spatial discrimination?
primary somatosensory cortex
Which of the following areas of the brain controls voluntary movement of the eyes?
frontal eye field
Parkinson's disease results from degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the __________.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus?
secretion of the hormone melatonin
__________ causes a person to lapse abruptly into REM sleep from the awake state.
Patients who have lesions involving Broca's area __________.
can understand language, but have difficulty speaking
Which meninx is a delicate connective tissue membrane that clings tightly to the brain like cellophane wrap following its every convolution?
Select the true statement regarding first-order neurons.
First-order neuron cell bodies reside in a ganglion.
During an epileptic seizure, the triggering of convulsions would not directly involve the uncontrolled activity of neurons located in the ______.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a coma but is NOT a characteristic of sleep?
continuously reduced mitochondrial activity in brain neurons
Which of the following does not occur during a narcoleptic sleep episode?
increased gastrointestinal activity
In anterograde amnesia ______.
LTM (long term memory) is not disrupted
NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate.
A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep.
The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing.
Nondeclarative memories preserve the circumstances in which they are learned.
Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?
Declarative memory ________.
is the ability to learn specific information
Which statement is not true?
Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.
Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?
The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.
REM sleep is associated with ________.
temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for ocular muscles and diaphragm
Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
Which statement about coma is true?
Coma may be caused by widespread cerebral or brain stem trauma.
__________ forms a liquid cushion for CNS structures.
__________ is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain in which beta-amyloid peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles appear and that ultimately results in dementia (mental deterioration).
During meningitis, which of the following is the most likely to be a direct source of pathogens that may spread to the brain?
Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons.
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.
The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
arachnoid and pia
Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
red blood cells
Which of the following is not a function of the CSF?
initiation of some nerve impulses
Which of the following is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?
What CNS associated structure is illustrated in this figure?
Which protective covering of the brain provides passageways for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to drain into the superior sagittal sinus?
In general, information flows from sensory receptors to the appropriate primary sensory cortex.
The term cerebral dominance designates the hemisphere that is dominant for language.
Which of the following is not a site where a tumor is likely to cause hydrocephalus?
Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
upper motor neurons
An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.
visual association area
Mrs. Sagalov has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. What clinical symptoms is she likely to show?
She will show increasing cognitive deficits, including difficulties with memory and attention, and personality changes such as irritability, moodiness, and confusion.
A patient is admitted to the rehabilitation unit five days after having a stroke. The nurse assesses his muscle strength and determines that he has right-sided weakness. Based on this assessment data, what part of the brain was injured?
here was damage to localized areas of the primary motor cortex in the left cerebral hemisphere.
Which of the following regions of the brain provides the precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for the smooth, coordinated movements and agility that are needed for our daily living?
Emotional state, rehearsal, association, and automatic memory are all factors that affect the transfer of information from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM).
Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
The adult spinal cord ends between L1 and L2.
Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other.
Spinocerebellar tracts ________.
carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ________.
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.
Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________.
Death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis usually results from respiratory infection secondary to compromised respiratory function. Why?
When the lungs have difficulty fully expanding, secretions may develop, causing respiratory infection.
Which of the following is NOT a feature of the major spinal cord tracts (pathways)?
What part of the spinal cord represents the collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal?
The hypothalamus is the area where afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body are sorted out and then relayed to the appropriate area of the sensory cortex.
Which of the following is the LEAST likely to be structurally affected if spina bifida develops in a fetus?
laminae of thoracic vertebrae
In spina bifida, the cerebrum and part of the brain stem never develop.
What process is indicated by the arrow on the right?
formation of cerebro-spinal fluid
Where is the illustrated structure located?
in each ventricle
Which type of glial cells are shown in this figure?
The neural fibers connecting structure A to the cerebral cortex can be described by which of the following?
third-order sensory neurons
Which of the following accurately describes the collection of spinal cord tracts illustrated in the figure?
Which of the following describes the nerve fibers indicated by the letter A?
first-order sensory neurons
What type of receptor is indicated by the letter B?
What function is most closely associated with the spinal cord tract indicated by the letter C?
coordination of skeletal muscle movements
The fiber tracts indicated by the letter D will terminate in the ______.
What descending pathway originates at the position indicated by the leader line?
Many of the descending fibers indicated in this figure cross over (decussate) to the opposite side of the body in which of the following?
The descending fibers in the figure provide for which of the following functions?
conscious control of skeletal muscle