125 notecards = 42 pages (3 cards per page)
What type of fetal testing provides results within a day or so of the test?
chorionic villus sampling
At how many weeks of pregnancy can chorionic villus sampling (CVS) be safely performed?
At what age are both amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling routinely ordered when a woman is pregnant to test for Down syndrome?
35 years old
Using the information provided in this figure, what is the probability of producing a homozygous dominant offspring?
Using the information provided in this figure, what is the probability of producing an offspring who can roll their tongue?
Which of the following is NOT the tongue-roller genotype?
Using the information provided in this figure, what is the probability of producing an offspring who CANNOT roll his or her tongue?
Using the information provided in this figure, what is the genotype of a homozygous recessive offspring?
Using the information provided in this figure, what is the probability of producing an offspring whose phenotype is that of tongue-roller?
Continuous phenotypic variation between two extremes results from _________.
Three genes control skin color. How many possible combinations of skin color result from those three genes?
Which of the following exemplifies polygenic inheritance?
How many chromatids are present in a tetrad?
During what phase of meiosis do the tetrads align together along the metaphase spindle?
If a cell has a diploid number of 22, how many total chromosomes should it have?
When one chromatid segment has formed a chiasma with a homologous chromatid segment, what is the result?
What do chiasmas promote?
For a cell with a five homologous pairs, calculate how many different gamete types can result from meiosis.
During metaphase of meiosis I, the alleles determining each trait are distributed to different gametes. What is this called?
What is the name of the condition when a person has inherited the genotype HH?
In this figure, hair color genes and eye color genes are located on the same chromosome. Since these genes are transmitted as a unit to daughter cells during mitosis, we describe these genes as ____________.
Which statement best describes the function of the urethra?
The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
What region of the male urethra runs through the urogenital diaphragm, extending about 2 cm from the prostate to the beginning of the penis?
intermediate part of the urethra (membranous urethra)
What type of epithelial tissue forms the mucosa layer of the urinary bladder?
Which pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane of the glomerulus?
hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)
Which of the following is the volume of filtrate formed each minute by all of the glomeruli of the kidneys?
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Calculate the net filtration pressure if blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusually high, around 68 mm Hg.
23 mm Hg
What hormone promotes active tubular secretion of potassium ions in the late distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting ducts?
In what part of the renal tubule are aquaporins scarce or absent so that water CANNOT be reabsorbed?
ascending limb of the nephron loop
In what part of the renal tubule does parathyroid hormone (PTH) promote the reabsorption of calcium ions?
distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Which of the following promotes the formation of dilute urine?
decreased osmolality of extracellular fluids
Which statement best describes the effect diuretics have?
Diuretics increase urinary output.
Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its effects to promote water reabsorption?
Which region of the kidney is characterized by the presence of cone-shaped pyramids? Select from letters A-D.
What region subdivides to form two or three major calyces and several minor calyces? Select from letters A-D.
Which letter represents the most superficial region of the kidney? Select from letters A-D.
What arteries branch off the arcuate arteries?
cortical radiate (interlobular) arteries
Which vessel is present in the arterial pathway as blood flows into the kidney but NOT present in the venous pathway exiting the kidney?
Which vessels supply the cortical tissue of the kidney with blood?
cortical radiate arteries
What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?
glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
Which of the three parts of the renal tubule is formed by cuboidal epithelial cells bordered by dense microvilli?
proximal convoluted tubule
In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the cortical nephrons?
The glomerulus of the cortical nephron is closer to the cortex-medulla junction.
Where does the efferent arteriole of the juxtamedullary nephron carry blood to?
Which capillary bed produces filtrate?
What is the function of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)?
The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule.
Where is filtrate produced in the nephron?
What vessel directly feeds into the glomerulus?
This chemical equation shows the reaction of a strong acid and weak base in the bicarbonate buffer system. Provide the products of the following reaction. HCl + NaHCO3 -->
H2CO3 + NaCl
Which chemical buffer system is the only important system in the extracellular fluid (ECF) that resists short-term changes in pH?
bicarbonate buffer system
In order to buffer a strong acid into a weak acid, which has a less dramatic effect on pH, what chemical should be used as the buffer?
Which of the following regulates the secretion of K+ into the filtrate?
What is the most important trigger for aldosterone release?
What results from increased levels of aldosterone?
increased Na+ reabsorption
In a given day, what is the typical value for water intake?
What accounts for the route through which most fluid is lost in a day?
How much water is generated per day from cellular metabolism?
Which of the following is NOT involved in triggering the thirst mechanism?
increase in blood pressure
What receptors does the brain use to detect changes in osmolality?
What hormone helps to maintain extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality when concentrations become too high?
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What type of water imbalance increases the amount of fluid in all compartments?
Which of the following conditions promotes edema?
What is the hallmark of hypotonic hydration?
Where is the majority of water stored in the human body?
intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment
Select the person in the following list who would have the highest percentage of water in his or her body.
a 6-month-old baby boy
During pregnancy, which hormone is responsible for stimulating maturation of the breast for lactation?
human placental lactogen (hPL)
What role does oxytocin play in promoting labor?
Oxytocin stimulates the uterus to contract.
Which of the following serves as the trigger to begin the vigorous, rhythmic contractions of true labor?
What is released from fetal lungs in the weeks before delivery to soften the cervix in preparation for labor?
surfactant protein A (SP-A)
How long does the expulsion stage typically last in a first birth?
During what stage is the afterbirth delivered?
The softening and thinning of the cervix during the dilation stage is known as ___________.
What does the hormone relaxin promote?
Relaxin promotes the relaxation, widening, and increased flexibility of the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis.
Due to the increased bulkiness of the anterior abdomen and the change in a pregnant woman's center of gravity, what type of spinal curvature do many pregnant women develop?
Which fetal vascular shunt directly connects the right atrium to the left atrium so as to bypass the nonfunctional lungs?
Which fetal vascular shunt bypasses the pulmonary circuit by connecting the pulmonary trunk to the aorta?
The dermatome is one of the three somites of the mesoderm. What does the dermatome form?
dermis of the skin in the dorsal part of the body
From what germ layer is the serosae of the coelom derived?
From what germ layer are the somites derived?
Which of the following arises from the endoderm?
mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract
Which of the following is derived from the somites of the mesoderm?
vertebrae and ribs
Which germ layer gives rise to the nervous system?
Which of the following takes oxygenated blood to the liver from the placenta?
Which extra-embryonic membrane protects the developing embryo against physical trauma and helps maintain a constant homeostatic temperature?
Which of the following implants in the mucosa of the endometrium?
What is the 16-cell stage known as?
How much time passes after fertilization until implantation occurs?
Which of the following is the multicellular cytoplasmic mass formed from the trophoblast as it implants into the endometrium?
What releases human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?
What membrane does the trophoblast form after implantation?
Together, what do the decidua basalis and the chorionic villi form?
What is the function of the placenta?
The placenta functions as a nutritive, respiratory, excretory, and endocrine organ for the developing embryo.
Once sperm are deposited into the vagina, sperm motility must be enhanced and they must be prepared to release hydrolytic enzymes from their acrosomes. What is this process called?
What does the cortical reaction prevent?
What is the event that results when the maternal and paternal chromosomes combine?
Which of the following cells is released during ovulation?
Why CAN'T polar bodies be fertilized?
Polar bodies lack nutrient-containing cytoplasm.
How many functional gametes are produced by oogenesis?
one functional gamete
What event occurs during the proliferative phase?
During what phase of the female's uterine (menstrual) cycle is the uterine lining shed?
What hormone promotes ovulation?
luteinizing hormone (LH)
What part of the female duct system is the usual site of fertilization of the ovulated oocyte?
uterine (fallopian) tube (oviduct)
Which layer of the uterine wall is made of smooth muscle?
Which specific layer of the uterus is shed during menstruation, approximately every 28 days?
stratum functionalis of the endometrium
Specifically, what encloses the vestibule which houses the openings of the urethra and vagina?
Which structure of the female's external genitalia has erectile tissue like the penis?
What are the two fatty, hair-covered skin folds that run posteriorly from the mons pubis?
What part of the breast produces milk?
The mammary glands belong to which of the following systems?
What is the pigmented ring of skin situated slightly below the center of each breast?
Which of the following inhibits the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary and GnRH from the hypothalamus when the sperm count is high?
Which of the following keeps the concentration of testosterone in the vicinity of the spermatogenic cells high to stimulate spermatogenesis?
androgen-binding protein (ABP)
Which hormone promotes the formation of secondary sex characteristics such as the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair, enhanced hair growth on the chest, and a deepening voice?
Why does meiosis involve two nuclear divisions rather than one, as in mitosis?
Meiosis reduces the chromosome number by half.
At what point during meiosis do homologous chromosomes pair up?
During meiosis, what does crossover promote?
Crossover promotes increased genetic variability among gametes.
Which of the following results from spermiogenesis?
Which of the following is the haploid cell produced as a result of meiosis I?
Which of the following cells is returned to the basal lamina to continue the pool of dividing germ cells?
type A daughter cell or spermatogonium
Which of the following is the site where sperm are stored until they are ejaculated?
tail of the epididymis
Which cells produce androgens such as testosterone?
interstitial endocrine (Leydig) cells
Which of the following is housed within the spermatic cord?
testicular arteries and veins
Which portion of the penis is removed through a procedure known as circumcision?
Which of these male accessory ducts transports both sperm and urine?
During vasectomy, what accessory duct is cut as a form of birth control?
ductus (vas) deferens