114 notecards = 29 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Which of following is a function of the skeletal system?
A) body support
B) calcium homeostasis
C) protection of internal organs
D) blood cell production
E) All of the answers are correct.
E) All of the answers are correct
2) Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system?
3) Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape?
4) The proximal and distal ends of a long bone are called the
5) The carpal bones are examples of ________ bones.
6) A rib is an example of a ________ bone.
7) The patella is an example of a(n) ________ bone.
8) Small bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called ________ bones.
9) ________ bones develop inside tendons, commonly near the knees, hands, and feet.
10) The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone.
11) A large proximal projection on a bone is called the
12) A hole through a bone is called a
13) The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a
14) A shallow depression on a bone is termed a
15) The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the
16) Which of the following labels best matches osteocyte?
C) mature bone cell
17) Bone is composed of ________ percent cells.
18) Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called
19) ________ are squamous stem cells that develop into osteoblasts.
D) Osteoprogenitor cells
20) Through the action of osteoclasts,
C) bony matrix is dissolved
21) The space occupied by an osteocyte is called
B) a lacuna
22) Which of the following chemicals is not present in bone?
D) chondroitin sulfate
23) ________ account(s) for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.
E) Calcium phosphate
24) ________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
25) The ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.
26) The most abundant cell type in bone is
27) The lacunae of osseous tissue contain
28) How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?
D) The bone would be more flexible
29) The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called
30) The central canal of an osteon contains
D) blood vessels
31) The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called
32) The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from many directions is ________ bone.
33) The structural units of mature compact bone are called
34) Adipose tissue is stored within the
A) medullary cavity
35) Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?
A) The bone matrix is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts.
36) In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are
37) The femur can withstand ________ times the body's weight without breaking.
D) 10 to 15
38) ________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.
39) The lining of the medullary cavity is called the
40) ________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles.
41) The layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are
A) circumferential lamellae
42) Which statement is true regarding calcium in bone matrix?
A) Calcium is found in crystals called hydroxyapatite
43) The trabeculae of spongy bone
B) are organized along stress lines
49) The articular cartilage of a typical long bone is composed of what type of cartilage?
C) hyaline cartilage
50) The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as
51) Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification?
E) the roof of the skull and the clavicle
52) Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)
B) cartilage model
53) The following are important steps in the process of endochondral ossification. What is the correct order for these events?
E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2
54) Secondary ossification centers occur
C) in the epiphyses
55) Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.
56) Which of the following statements about Marfan's syndrome is false?
A) It results in short, stubby fingers
57) Bone growth in length occurs by mitosis of
B) cartilage cells in the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis.
58) Intramembranous ossification
A) produces flat bones, as in the bones of the roof of the skull.
59) Primary ossification centers develop in long bones in the
60) Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete
A) protein fibers
61) Suppose that epiphyseal lines appear in a 10-year-old's long bones. Which of the following statements is, therefore, true?
A) The epiphyseal plates have ossified and further growth in length is not possible.
62) During appositional growth
B) bones grow wider
63) When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,
D) long bones have reached their adult length
64) When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones
A) grow longer
65) Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by
C) elevated levels of estrogen
66) When production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates
B) become narrower
67) The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification:
What is the correct order for these events?
C) 4, 2, 1, 3
73) In normal adult bones,
B) a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year
74) A lack of exercise could
C) result in porous and weak bones
75) When stress is applied to a bone,
A) the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts.
76) Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in
77) Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except
B) vitamin E
78) Where in the body does the production of precursors for the synthesis of calcitriol occur?
79) The most abundant mineral in the human body is
80) Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone
81) The hormone calcitonin functions to
D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood
82) Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways except
E) inhibiting calcitonin secretion
83) A child with rickets often has
D) bowed legs
84) Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
85) Hundreds of years ago, explorers often died of scurvy. How can this bone-related disease be prevented?
C) Supplement the diet with fresh fruit rich in vitamin C.
86) How is vitamin D (vitamin D3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone?
D) Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract
87) The disease osteomalacia causes calcium loss from the skeleton, which would result in bones that are
D) weaker and more flexible
88) After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the
B) external callus
89) A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture.
90) While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott's fracture. What would you expect as a prominent part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall?
91) What is the correct sequence of steps in bone repair?
E) 2, 3, 1, 4
92) Osteoclast-activating factor does all of the following except that it
A) is released in large amounts early in life.
93) A condition in which bone becomes riddled with holes is called
94) The condition known as osteopenia
B) causes a gradual reduction in bone mass.
95) If osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts, bones will become
96) Why does osteoporosis affect more women than men?
E) Women have a decrease in sex hormones after menopause
97) Aging has what effect on the skeletal system?
C) loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrix
98) If a tumor secretes high levels of osteoclast-activating factor, which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition?
E) All of the answers are correct.
99) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone might she prescribe for Mary?
100) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests nutritional therapy. What might she recommend for Mary?
E) All of the answers are correct
1) The shaft of long bones is called the
2) A ________ is a smooth, grooved bone process shaped like a pulley.
3) A small rough bump on bone where a tendon attaches is called a
4) A chamber within a bone normally filled with air is a
5) The expanded articular end of an epiphysis that is separated from the shaft by a narrower neck is called a
6) A ________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.
7) The adult skeleton contains ________ major bones.
8) In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of
9) Stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts are called ________ cells.
10) Cells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called
11) ________ prevents damaging bone-to-bone contact within movable joints.
D) Articular cartilage
12) Cells that are found in small depressions on the endosteal surfaces are the
13) Cells that secrete protein fibers in bone are called
14) The organic component of the matrix in developing or repairing bone is called
15) Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as
A) perforating canals
16) ________ fibers are stronger than steel when stretched.
17) The superficial membrane of a bone is called the
18) During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.
19) A calcified skeletal muscle is an example of
C) heterotopic bone formation
20) What type of tissue is replaced in the embryo during endochondral ossification?
D) hyaline cartilage
21) The ongoing process of tearing down and rebuilding bone matrix is called
22) ________ hormones stimulate osteoblasts to produce bone matrix.
23) Damage to a bone because of extreme load, sudden impact, or stresses applied from an unusual direction is called a
33) The natural age-related loss of bone mass is called