APUSH Notecards 4th Six Weeks
the southern United States in the years since the American Civil War in 1887
Civil Rights Cases
a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review
Plessy vs. Ferguson
a U.S. Supreme Court case from 1896 that upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private places.
Helen Hunt Jackson
was a United States writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government.
Washbash St. Louis and Pacific Railway Company v. Illinois (1886)
also known as the Wabash Case, was a Supreme Court decision that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce, and also overturned The case Munn v. Illinois.
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
The court decided that states had the right to regulate commerce within their states (particularly railroad and grain elevator companies.
U.S. v E.C. Knight Company (1895)
The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Interstate Commerce Act
banned rebates and pools, required RR companies to publish their rates openly, forbade discrimination against shippers, banned charging more for a short haul than a long one
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
forbade combinations (trusts, pools, etc) in restraint of trade; enforced in 1914
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
passed by the U.S. Congress to supplant the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. It required the U.S. government to purchase nearly twice as much silver as before. it also added substantially to the amount of money already in circulation
Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, and Eugene V. Debs--
overt favoritism toward native-born americans.
The movement preached and taught religion and human dignity to the working class in order to correct the effects of capitalism
Gospel of Wealth
people thought that some were destined to become rich and help others
A member or adherent of a political party that represents the interests of ordinary people.
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan
Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader
published On the Origin of Species which set fourth the new doctrine of evolution modernists began to question the bible
Booker T. Washington
ex slave that wanted to help the south, which was really behind in education (especially for blacks). He headed a black teacher and industrial school in Tuskegee Alabama
W.E.B. Du Bois
a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Muller v. Oregon
in 1908, Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies
Lochner v. New York
1905 Supreme Court invalidated a NY law esablishing a 10-hr workday for bakers
In re Debs
Supreme Court approved the use of court injunctions against strikes, which gave employers a very powerful weapon to break unions.
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company
the Supreme Court ruled that the unapportioned income taxes on interest, dividends and rents imposed by the Income Tax Act of 1894 were direct taxes and unconstitutional
Those who were best fit for survival would become rich and powerful, and the less fit in society would be poor and the lower classes
Reagan Farmer Loan and Trust Company
Restrain railroad commissioners from enforcing certain rates and regulations, and the attorney general from suing for penalties for failure to conform to such rates and obey such regulations
Reagan v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co.
A philosophical movement that includes those who claim that an ideology.
The Gilded Age refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War
A slang term for U.S. paper dollars.
republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; supported Cleveland.
favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the democratic and republican parties. they did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
1883 law that created a civil service commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
a farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
movement of farmers in the late 1800s to become politically involved to protect their interest in america; movement wanted to expand the money supply and regulate big business
master of satire, regional writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include the adventures of huckleberry finn, "the amazing jumping frog of calaverus county," and stories about the american west.
a group of unemployed men who marched to Washington, D.C., in the depression year of 1894.
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems. (1861-1951)
political orientation of those who favor progress toward better conditions in government and society
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the republican vote, enabling Wilson to win.
Also known as the eight, a group of american naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they believed in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Held first art show in the U.S.
Anthracite Coal Strike
1902 mine workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor (first time).
Clayton Anti-trust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman antitrust act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions.
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published the jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities, like NY, where immigrants (the other half) lived during the late 1800's.
annexation of Hawaii
1898 Extended U.S. territory into the Pacific and highlighted resulted from economic integration and the rise of the United States as a Pacific power.
journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Spanish American War
a conflict between the United States and Spain in 1898, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence.
an amendment drafted by Henry M. Teller declaring that the us had no desire to control Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone
allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the united states control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay
Open Door Policy
a policy proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
an extension to the Monroe Doctrine, created in 1904, under which the US claimed the right to protect its economic interests by means of military intervention in the affairs of the western hemisphere nations
term used to describe the efforts of the us to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Alfred Thayer Mahan
US admiral who encouraged the US to strengthen its naval power to become a world power
a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically
Espionage and Sedition Acts
two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in WWI
intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas
supreme court cases of 1901 that determined that the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights did not apply in colonial territories under the American flag
Schenck vs. U.S.
Supreme Court case that established the precedent that free speech could be suspended in times of clear and present danger
prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the american railroad union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike
Charles Evan Hughes
a reformist republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. Later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election