A&P chpt 12 & 13
The primary auditory cortex is located in the _______
The brain stem consists of the ________.
midbrain, medulla, and pons
The arbor vitae refers to ________.
cerebellar white matter
What cells line the ventricles of the brain?
The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.
Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________
Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?
The hemispheres are exactly equal in function
The central sulcus separates which lobes?
frontal from parietal
Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.
The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________
Broca's area ________
is considered a motor speech area
Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?
The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________
The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.
visceral sensory area
The large commissure that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the ________.
The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________.
The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
The corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi are visual reflex centers, whereas the inferior colliculi are auditory reflex centers.
The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant.
The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain
One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.
Which of the following is true of the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain?
The cerebral hemispheres account for about 83% of total brain mass.
Which of the following best represents the motor areas of the cortex?
Primary motor cortex; Premotor cortex; Broca's area; Frontal eye field
Which of the following areas of the brain is responsible for spatial discrimination?
Primary somatosensory cortex
Which of the following areas of the brain controls voluntary movement of the eyes?
Frontal eye field
Which of the following is not a function of the hypothalamus?
Secretion of the hormone melatonin
Which of the following regions of the brain coordinates subconscious activities and provides for the muscle coordination and agility needed for our daily living?
Patients who have lesions involving Broca's area:
can understand language, but have difficulty speaking.
Which of the following meninges is composed of delicate connective tissue and is richly invested with tiny blood vessels?
Which parts of the brain constitutes the "emotional brain" known as the limbic system?
cerebral and diencephalon structures
Which type of white matter fiber tract connects the two cerebral hemispheres?
Which part of the brain is the gateway to the cerebral cortex?
Which of the following best describes the hypothalamus?
visceral control center of the body
Which part of the brain stem houses the reflex centers for respiration and cardiovascular functioning?
Which part of the brain is the motor command center?
Which protective covering of the brain releases cerebrospinal fluid into the dural sinuses?
The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
arachnoid and pia
Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
red blood cells
Which of the following is not a function of the CSF?
initiation of some nerve impulses
Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons.
The structures that are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood are the ________.
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.
_________ forms a liquid cushion for CNS structures
________ results from a degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra, and leads to symptoms such as persistent tremors at rest, forward-bent walking posture and shuffling gate.
The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.
Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?
REM sleep is associated with ________
temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles
Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
Which statement about coma is true?
Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time
Declarative memory ________.
is the ability to learn specific information
Which statement is not true?
Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.
Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.
Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.
Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?
NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate
The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing.
A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep.
Nondeclarative memories preserve the circumstances in which they are learned.
What part of the spinal cord represents the collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal?
Spinocerebellar tracts ________
carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.
visual association area
The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________
metabolic waste such as urea
Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called:
______ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the PNS
Which of the following is not a main level of neural integration in the somatosensory system?
Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?
The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.
Transduction refers to conversion of ________
stimulus information to nerve impulses
Choose the false statement about nerves
The majority of a nerve's bulk is due to axons
The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the:
Spinal nerves are all classified as
Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds each axon in a nerve?
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.
The phrenic nerve serves the
In carpal tunnel syndrome the ______ is compressed
Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?
Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?
The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.
The abducens nerve ________.
supplies innervation to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
The trochlear nerve conveys proprioceptor impulses from the ________ to the brain
superior oblique muscle
Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers
The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers
The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.
The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a:
What type of nerve fibers are found in the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve?
both sensory and motor
Striking the "funny bone" is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ________.
If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
a complete loss of voluntary movement
Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves
Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.
Inborn or intristic reflexes are ________.
involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
Which reflex is important for maintaining muscle tone?
Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?
The patellar "knee jerk" reflex is an example of a(n) ________.
A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a ________.
Golgi tendon reflex
In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________
_________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.
Which of the following is comprised of encapsulated nerve endings?
The first level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the ______ level.
_______ do not exhibit the property of adaptation.
Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?
Which of the following is not an example of an exteroceptor?
Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________
Which receptors adapt most slowly?