Chapter 19:3-- The Korean War
what main powers had considerable influence in China and even held some Chinese territory?
what happened to German territory in China after WWI?
-it was given to Japan
what did some people in China begin calling for in 1919?
-protestors called for a stronger, more independent China
-some demanded democracy and nationalism
-others thought communism was the way to build a strong nation
Nationalist Party in China:
-gained power in?
-in mid-1920s they gained strength in northern China and captured Beijing
Communists in China:
-made gains in?
-how did they gain support in Southeastern China?
-gains around Shanghai and in southeastern China
-by redistributing land to the peasants and offering them schooling and health care
describe the initial massacre in China and the start of the Chinese Civil War
-gains made by both parties resulted in a massacre that would lead to the civil war
-1934: Communist forces began retreating from Nationalist forces in what's called the Long March
-Mao then began rebuilding forces in north of China
how had the two parties treated each other during WWII and what changed after it?
-the cooperated to resist invading Japanese forces
-after the war the Chinese Civil War intensified
what happened at the conclusion of the Chinese Civil War?
why did the Nationalists lose support?
-fled to Taiwan & claimed were legit gov of China
-harsh treatment of the population, high taxes, and corruption
how did Korea become divided?
what is the 38th parallel?
what kind of government was established in each part?
when did occupying forces withdraw?
-Japan had annexed Korea before WWI, Japanese rule was harsh, then WWII ended before plans were made for Korean independence. the Allies agreed on a temporary solution in 1945: they divided Korea on the 38th parallel in the middle of the country; the north went to the Soviet and South to Americans
-the north became a Communist regime and South became a pro-American government
-in 1948 and 1949
what did Koreans want on both sides of the 39th parallel?
-to unify their nation
how did the Korean War begin and when?
why were Americans alarmed?
Why did Truman decide to react?
-1950: North Korean troops went across the parallel to unify the nation by force, took Americans by surprised and alarmed them
-they thought the S.U. was responsible, also that communism was on advance again
-he said that each time democracies failed to act it encouraged the aggressors, if U.S. didn't act a third world war might start
how did China get kicked out of the UN?
why did the S.U. leave the UN?
what did the UN brand North Korea as?
what did the UN send to help defend South Korea?
-when the communists won China's Civil War the U.S. blocked their admission to the UN
-they walked out in protest of the above
-an aggressor, called on member states to defend South Korea and restore peace
-set up United Nations Command, asked U.S. to choose commander of UN forces, Americans made up most of troops though 16 member nations contributed
General Douglas MacArthur:
who was he before the Korean War?
why did Truman choose him to head the UN forces?
how did he head the UN forces?
what actually happened contradictory to MacArthur's plan?
-was in Japan, headed postwar occupation, created democracy there, made its new demo constitution, had headed SK US occupation had little success in making demo there, had been 4 pres Syngman Rhee despite his brutal elimination of opponents
-hero of 2 WW, strong anti-Commy, excellent military strategist
-had bold plan to drive invaders from South Korea
-NKs conquered all of SK but a small part near port city of Pusan
what did MacArthur suspect after NK had conquered all but Pusan?
what did he decide to do as a result?
did MacArthur's military strategy work and what happened?
-that NK's rapid advance had weakened their supplies
-strike at this weakness: 1st sent troops to defend Pusan, September 1950 landed troops at Inchon in NW SK, attacked supply line from behind
-yes, caught between UN forces in N & S, supplies cut off, NK troops fled across 38th Parallel, & UN troops pursues northward
what did US & SK leaders begin to boast of?
why were the Chinese Commys alarmed at such talk?
what did they do as UN troops approach NK's border w\ China?
did MacArthur heed the warning?
-reuniting Korea under South Korean control
-they had been in power < a year and didn't want a pro-Western nation next door
-they warned them not to advance further
what was the "Home by Christmas" offensive?
how did China respond?
how did a stalemate develop?
-MacArthur announced it November 24, 1950, it was designed to drive the enemy across the NK border at the Yalu River into China and end the war
-poured troops across Yala to take the offensive
-Chinese & NK troops pushed UN forces back into SK
how did MacArthur favor breaking the stalemate?
why did Truman oppose this strategy?
how did MacArthur respond to Truman's opposition?
why did Truman fire MacArthur?
-by opening a 2nd front, wanted Chinese opposition forces of Jiang Jieshi on island of Taiwan to return to mainland and attack Chinese Commies
-feared it could lead to widespread war in Asia
-sent letter 2 House Minority Leader Joseph Martin March 1951 attacking T's policies, M made letter public
-April 11: 4 insubordination: defiance of authority
how did MacArthur return home?
-to a hero's welcome, made emotional farewell speech in joint session of Congress
how did the Korean War end?
-Truman kept it limited, it dragged on for over 2 years into the Eisenhower presidency, peace talks began then stalled, Eisenhower threatened to use a-bomb & talks resumed, truce signed 1953, Korea left divided at almost same place as before war
why did the Korean War cause enormous frustration in the United States?
what demonstrated success of the war & that Americans had to get used to limited wars & victories?
-Americans wondered why so many US troops had been killed and wounded with little result, questioned whether gov was serious about stopping communism
-Commy forces pushed back across 38th parallel without nuclear war
what changed in the military in the Korean War?
-it was the 1st war where whites and blacks served in the same units, > than have fed budget spent in defense during war, US came to accept demands of permanent mobilization of troops, the military became more powerful in the US: developed links to corporate & scientific communites
-military ties with corporate and scientific communities in the US created this, it employed 3.5 million Americans by 1960
how did the Korean War help to shape future US policy in Asia?
-the US hoped that Japan could help maintain a balance of power in the Pacific, so they signed a peace treaty with Japan in September 1951
-also the Korean War further poisoned relations with Communist China, leading to a diplomatic standoff that would last > than 20 years