PSYCHOLOGY CH. 5
Observation learning is learning that occurs when we__________--
is relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience
Learning by watching the behavior of others is in social learning theory called ____________ learning
Which of the following are examples of primary reinforces?
Food, water and sexual satisfaction
When removal of a stimulus in response to a behavior increases the frequency of that behavior, _______ is said to have occurred.
When a dog salivates upon tasting food, the salivation is called the ________ reponse
In term of increasing or decreasing behavior in operant conditioning, negative reinforcement ________ a behavior whereas punishment _______ it.
is a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of mental activities such as thinking, wishing, and hoping.
Which of the following are secondary reinforcers?
The form of associative learning where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic inborn reponse is called _____________ conditioning
What is the definition of reinforcement?
The process by which a stimulus increases the probability that behavior will be repeated
According to Thorndike's law of effect,
1. behaviors followed by bad results are less likely to occur
2. behaviors followed by good results are more likely to occur again
Define classical condition
The form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus is associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic, inborn response.
_______ reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase the frequency of that behavior
________ reinforcement is the presentation of a stimulus after a behavior
Which of the following is NOT a schedule of partial reinforcement?
What is a conditioned stimulus?
A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a learned response
is the process in operant conditioning by which a stimulus increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated.
Which of the following is an example of observational learning?
When a child imitates his mother's actions
By ringing a bell whenever he gave food to his lab dogs, Pavlov eventually got the dogs to salivate to the sound of the bell. In this context the salivation elicited by sound of the bell is called the
_________ _________ is a form of associative learning in whcih the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurence
__________ of reinforcement are timetables that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
Punishment will tend to
reduce the frequency of a behavior
_________ conditioning can produce immunosuppression, a decrease in the production of antibodies.
What is insight learning?
A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden understanding of the problem's solution
If one wants a high rate of responding, one should use which type of schedule?
The pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which reponses are always reinforced after a set period of time has passes is called a ________ ________ schedule
Which of the following is the definition of spontaneous recovery?
An extinguished conditioned response reemerges
What is the abbreviation for 'unconditioned response'?
Both positive and negative punishment
reduce the frequency of a behavior
The term used to describe learning that is not reinforced and is not reflective immediately in behavior, the term used is ______ learning
Implicit or latent learning
When a child tells a doll not to eat too much candy after having been told so by its mother, this is an example of
Operant conditioning is better than classical conditioning at explaining:
True or false: Acquisition in classical conditioning is the initial learning of the stimulus-response link.
_________ modification is the use of operant conditioning to change human behavior
In __________ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented eery time; whereas in _________ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented some of the time.
What is the abbreviation for 'conditioned response'?
A learned association between a particular taste and nausea is a special kind of ______ conditioning.
Unlike positive punishment, negative punishment
Involves removing a stimulus
When a rat is enters a Skinner box, it has to learn to press a lever to get food. At the very beginning of this process, it is rewarded with food when it is only in the vicinity of the lever, then it is rewarded when it touches the lever, and so on. This technique of rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior is___________
The unconditioned stimulus
Automatically causes a response, each time it is presented
Expectancy ______ is when for example, a patient can see that they are getting a drug for pain (as in a pill versus an injection) because their own past expectations are triggered to expect pain reductio,
In classical conditioning, the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent is known as ______
True or false: A variable-interval schedule is a timetable in which behaviors are rewarded an average number of times, but on an unpredictable basis.
The sudden reappearance of an extinguished response is called _______ recovery
True or false: A fixed-ratio schedule reinforces a behavior after a set number of behavior
The conditioned response is the ______ response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
When a previously conditioned response decreases and eventually disappears, ______ has occurred.
Applied behavior analysis or _______ modification is the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior.
A(n)_____ stimulus produces a response without prior learning.
What behavior do rats engage in while in a "Skinner box"?
Perform a behavior
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that does not bring about a response of interest is a ______- stimulus
_____ can be especially helpful for learning tasks that require time and persistence to complete because rewards are given as subjects get closer to approximating the task.
Positive punishment is____
Addition of a stimulus to decrease a behavior
Which of the following is a variable ratio schedule?
Sam is reinforced every 2-5 times he puts his toys away
In clasical conditioning, the tendency of a new stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response is known as ______-
the removal of a stimulus to decrease a behavior