Anthropology Chapter 12
the son stays and the daughter leaves, so that the married couple lives with or near the husbands parents (67%)
the daughter stays and the son leaves, so that the married couple lives with or near the wife's parents (15%)
either the son or the daughter leaves so that the married couple lives with or near either the wife's or husbands parents (7%)
both son and daughter normally leave but the son and his wife settle with or near his mother's brother (4%)
are non optional, matrilocal patrilocal and avunculocal. may live in the same house hold (extended family household) or independent household excluding the wife's or husbands parents
both son and daughter leave, married couples live apart from the relatives of both spouses (5% U.S.)
Because the pattern of residence governs with or near whom individuals live, it largely determines which people those individuals interact with and have to depend on
How does place of residence affect the social life of the couple?
the patrilocal extended family consists of the "great father" who is the head of the household, and his younger brothers, his sons, his younger brothers' sons. Also included are the in-married wives and all unmarried children
Tiv of central Nigeria
Rules that connect individuals with particular sets of kin because of known or presumed common ancestry. (unilineal and ambilineal descent)
Rules of descent
The fact that a person is affiliated with a group of kin through descent links of one sex only-- only male or only female. It can be either patrilineal descent or matrilineal descent
Affiliates individuals with kin of both sexes related to them through the MEN ONLY. Affiliation is only transmitted by the sons. More common than matrilineal descent
Unilineal descent: Patrilineal
Affiliates individuals with kin of both sexes related to them through WOMEN ONLY. Affiliation is only transmitted by the daughters.
Unilineal descent: Martilineal
Your mother and her parent's do not belong to your patrilineal group, but your father and his father (and his sisters) do.
Patrilineal Descent example
Affiliates individuals with kin related to them through men or women. For example, some people in the society affiliate with a group of kin through their father's and some may affiliate with their mother's
Individuals affiliate for some purposes with a group of matrilineal kin and for other purposes with a group of patrilineal kin. They can choose both.
Double Descent or Double Unilineal Descent
babies were traditionally given names that described the circumstances of their birth situation
ex: "born in the morning"
Luo of Kenya Baby Naming
One's relatives on both the mother's and father's sides are both equal in importance or unimportance. Kinship moves horizontally; outward from close to more distant relatives
A person's bilateral set of relatives who may be called on for some purpose such as; the people we may invite to weddings, funerals, etc. It is an ego-centered group.
Aside from brothers/sisters, no two people belong to exactly the same kin group. Your kindred is only affiliated by their connection to you
Distinctive feature of Bilateral Kinship
A set of kin whose members trace descent from a common ancestor through known links. Can be patrilineage or matrilineage where links are traced either through male only or female only. Lineages are often designated by the name of the common ancestor
A set of kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor, but the links back to that ancestor are not specified or may not be known. There are Patriclans and Matriclans
Clan aka Sib
Clans are often designated by an animal name, called a totem, which may have some significance for the group and is a means for group identification
ex: Bear, Wolf, Crow
A unilineal descent group composed of supposedly related clans or sibs. Descent links are unspecified. Tend to be larger populations.
When a whole society is divided into two unlineal descent group, each group is called a moiety. The people in each moiety believe they are descended from a common ancestor, but they cannot specify how. Tend to be small populations
Many societies have two or more types of descent groups in various combinations.
ex: society can have lineages and clans or phratries and clans
An example of a patrilineal society with various types of descent groups.
The Kapauku Papuans
Four functions of Unilineal Descent Groups
kin by marriage
All cousins are lumped together under the same term, but are distinguished from brothers and sisters. All aunts/uncles are lumped under the same term, but are distinguished from mother and father. Usually Bilateral kindred systems practice this
Inuit or Eskimo System
Father and father's brother are both referred by the same term. Mother and mother's sister are both referred by the same term. Mother's brother's daughter is also referred by the same term as the mother and the mother's sister. Usually seen in patrilineal descent.
Has the same lumping of the Omaha system except it is associated with matrilineal descent. Father and father's brother are both referred by the same term. Mother and mother's sister are both referred by the same term. Mother's brother's daughter is also referred by the same term as the mother and the mother's sister.
Same lumping as Crow and Omaha Systems.Usually seen in Unilineal Descent. Father and father's brother are both referred by the same term. Mother and mother's sister are both referred by the same term. Also, both sets of cross-cousins (Mother's brother's children/Fathers sister's children) are referred to by the same term.
Usually does not lump any relatives in the parents' or egos' generations. It is a descriptive system in which a descriptive term is used for each of the relatives. Usually associated with patrilineal, also have political complexity, class stratification, occupational specializaton
Least complex and uses the smallest number of terms. All relatices of the same sex in the same generation are referred to by the same term. For example all female cousins are referred to by the same term as my sister, or all male cousins are given same term as brother