AP US History Chp. 9-13
The Peggy Eaton affair was a scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet and their wives. Although it started over a private matter, it affected the political careers of several men and resulted in the informal "Kitchen Cabinet". Floride Calhoun, the wife of Vice President John C. Calhoun, led a group of other Cabinet wives in an "anti-Peggy" coalition.Martin Van Buren, a widower and the only unmarried member of the Cabinet, allied himself with the Eatons.
Jackson was sympathetic to the Eatons, in part, perhaps, because his wife, Rachel had been the subject of innuendo, as it was revealed that her first marriage had not yet been legally ended at the time of her wedding to Jackson. Jackson elevated Van Buren as his favorite and replaced Calhoun as vice presidential running mate in his re-election campaign.
Peggy Eaton Affair
The Webster–Hayne debate was a famous debate in the United States between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina that took place in 1830 on the topic of protectionist tariffs. The heated speeches between Webster and Hayne themselves were unplanned, and stemmed from debate over a resolution by Connecticut Senator Samuel A. Foot calling for the temporary suspension of further land surveying until land already on the market was sold, this would effectively stop the introduction of new lands onto the market.
John C. Calhoun split from Jackson and returned to South Carolina, which had been hit hard by the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. These tariffs ruined the states economic base, and therefore the state decided that they could nullify any federal state that was disadvantageous to them.
The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. The act authorized him to negotiate with the Native Americans in the Southern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands.
The act was strongly supported by non-native people of the South, who were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the Five Civilized Tribes.
Indian Removal Act
Worcester v. Georgia, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional. The case is most famous for the result, which laid out the relationship between tribes and the state and federal governments, building the foundations of the doctrine of tribal sovereignty in the United States.
Supreme Court (Worcester Vs. Georgia)
The Trail of Tears is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal, included many members of different tribes, from their homelands to Indian Territory in eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma.
Trail Of Tears
The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices and wages went down while unemployment went up. Pessimism abounded during the time. The panic had both domestic and foreign origins. Speculative lending practices in western states, a sharp decline in cotton prices, and a collapsing land bubble were causes. Banks collapsed, businesses failed, prices declined, and thousands of workers lost their jobs.
Panic of 1837
William Henry Harrison was the first president to campaign actively for office. He did so with the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." Tippecanoe referred to Harrison's military victory over a group of Shawnee Indians at a river in Indiana called Tippecanoe in 1811. For their part, Democrats laughed at Harrison for being too old for the presidency, and said he would just drink and sit around, however this backfired and people saw Harrison as the peoples champion and so he won the election of 1838.
Log Cabin Campaign
King Cotton was a slogan used by Confederates to support secession from the United States by arguing cotton exports would make an independent Confederate States of America economically prosperous, ruin the textile industry of New England, and—most important—would force Great Britain and France to support the Confederacy in the Civil War because their industrial economy depended on cotton textiles.
The growth of plantations, the numbers of plantations and the number of plantation owners. This was the beginning of the slavery boom, tobacco and cotton needed manual labor and so more and more people got into ownership because the money was good.
This value system emphasized new ideas of femininity, the woman's role within the home and the dynamics of work and family. "True women" were supposed to possess four cardinal virtues: piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness. The women and men who most actively promoted these standards were generally white, Protestant, and lived in New England and the Northeastern United States.
Cult Of Domesticity
Vesey an African-American man who was most famous for planning a slave rebellion in the United States in 1822. He was enslaved in South Carolina. After purchasing his freedom, he is believed to have planned a slave rebellion. Word of the plans was leaked, and authorities arrested the plot's leaders at Charleston, South Carolina, before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were convicted and executed.
Turner an African American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 60 white deaths. He gathered supporters in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner was convicted, sentenced to death, and hanged. In the aftermath, the state executed 56 blacks accused of being part of Turner's slave rebellion. Across Virginia and other southern states, state legislators passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.
Prosser was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment. In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions.
Mormonism was growing, but so was the hatred towards them for their "strange" beliefs. They needed a new place to live, and so Brigham Young, the handpicked successor of Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, led the Mormons to Salt Lake City in Utah.
Transcendentalism was a religious and philosophical movement that was developed during the late 1820s and 1830s. Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed.
Ralph Waldo Emerson was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau was an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, historian, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Resistance to Civil Disobedience, an argument for disobedience to an unjust state.
Henry David Thoreau
Effect of the Second Great Awakening of religion in the United States. It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age.
Horace Mann (May 4, 1796 – August 2, 1859) was an American education reformist. He created, and served on the Massachusetts board of Education. Arguing that universal public education was the best way to turn the nation's unruly children into disciplined, judicious republican citizens, Mann won widespread approval from modernizers, especially in his Whig Party, for building public schools. Most states adopted one version or another of the system he established in Massachusetts, especially the program to train professional teachers. Mann has been credited as the Father of the Common School Movement.
William Lloyd Garrison was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator. He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves. Fredrick Douglass was an African-American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing. He stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves did not have the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizen.
Abolition (Garrison Vs. Douglass)
Dorothea Dix was the leading advocate for reforms to help people become better, rather than lock them up in horrible conditions. She wanted mentally ill people to be classified as sick and not criminals. Helped start reformation to the prison and asylum systems.
Uncle Tom's Cabin an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel has been called 'the groundwork for the Civil War' by many and was a book that caused tensions to become even more strenuous.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
The Seneca Falls Convention was an early and influential women's rights convention, the first to be organized by women in the Western world, in Seneca Falls, New York. Elizabeth Cody Stanton and the Quaker women presented two prepared documents, the Declaration of Sentiments and an accompanying list of resolutions, to be debated and modified before being put forward for signatures.
Seneca Falls Convention
Places like Brook Farm, where life was supposed to be perfect. Brook Farm was a utopian experiment in communal living in the United States in the 1840s. It was founded by former Unitarian minister George Ripley and was based in part by the ideals of Transcendentalism.
The American belief that God had given them the whole continent and everything on it to do with what they please. This was a reason to expand, grow, push the natives further west, take whatever they wanted. Americans could do whatever they wanted with the continent.
Ultimately a mild resolution was approved, the text of which called on both governments to settle the matter amicably. By a large margin, moderation had won out over calls for war. Unlike Western Democrats, most Congressmen—like Polk—did not want to fight for 54° 40′. The Polk administration then made it known that the British government should offer terms to settle the dispute. Both sides drew up a formal treaty, known as the Oregon Treaty, which was ratified by the Senate on June 18, 1846 by a vote of 41–14. The border was set at the 49th parallel as a compromise.
Oregon "54/40 or Fight"
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. All told, the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States.
Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo. All of the Texan defenders were killed. Santa Anna's perceived cruelty during the battle inspired many Texans—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texan Army.
Battle of The Alamo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848 ended the war. The treaty gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande, and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. In return, Mexico received US $15,000,000, less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities.
Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Polk was the surprise candidate for president in 1844, defeating Henry Clay of the rival Whig Party by promising to invade and annex Texas. Polk was a leader of Jacksonian Democracy. He's also known for invading and annexing roughly half of the Mexican Republic. He threatened war with Britain over the issue of which nation owned the Oregon Country, then backed away and split the ownership of the region with Britain. When Mexico rejected American annexation of Texas, Polk led the nation to a sweeping victory in the Mexican-American War, which gave the United States most of its present Southwest.
James K. Polk
The Mexican American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory.
Mexican American War