Chapter 7 Acids, Bases, and Solutions
What is a solution?
a uniform mixture that contains a solvent and at least one solute
What part of a solution is the solvent?
the part present in the largest amount
What part of a solution is the solute?
the substance that is present in the smallest amount and is dissolved by the solvent
A mixture that contains small, undissolved particles that do not settle out is a called?
Give an example of a colloid.
Milk, fog, gelatin, mayonnaise
A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration is know as what?
Give an example of a suspension.
Water and pepper; snowglobe
What do solutes do to the freezing point and boiling point of solvents?
lower the freezing point, raise the boiling point
What kind of a solution has a lot of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent?
What kind of solution has a little solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent?
What is solubility?
a measure of how much solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature
If you have added so much solute to a solution that no more dissolves, you have what kind of solution?
What factors affect solubility?
pressure, type of solvent, and temperature
What kind of solution has more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at a given temperature?
What are the properties of an acid?
tastes sour, reacts with metals, reacts with carbonates, turns blue litmus paper red
What does corrosive mean?
wears away other materials
What are the properties of a base?
tastes bitter, feels slippery, does not react with metals, turns red litmus paper blue
What kinds of ions do acids form in water?
hydrogen ions (H+)
What kinds of ions do bases form in water?
hydroxide ions (OH-)
Having a pH of 6 or lower indicates that something is?
Having a pH of 8 or greater indicates that something is?
What has a pH of 7 and is known as the "universal solvent"?
A reaction between an acid and a base is know as what?
What is produced in a neutralization reaction?
a salt and a water
What does the pH scale do?
expresses the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution