Chapter 10 Notes

1.

motion

all matter is constantly in ___________

2.

change

motion involves a ___________ in position

3.

reference

an object changes position relative to a ____________ point

4.

distance

___________________ is the total length of the route an object travels when it moves

5.

displacement

___________________ includes distance and direction of the stopping point from the starting point

6.

speed

distance traveled divided by the time taken to travel the distance is called ___________

7.

speed

the formula for ____________ can be written as: speed = distance/time

8.

meters per second

the units of speed are units of distance divided by units of time; in SI units, speed is given as ________________________ (m/s)

9.

speeds

an object in motion can change __________ many times as it moves from one point to another, speeding up or slowing down

10.

average speed

________________ is the total distance traveled divided by total time taken

11.

instantaneous speed

an object's speed at a particular moment in time is called ______________________

12.

constant

_______________ speed occurs when an object travels at a steady rate with the same instantaneous speed for some period of time

13.

plotted

motion can be _______________ on a distance-time graph with time plotted on the horizontal axis and distance plotted on the vertical axis

14.

speed

the steeper the line on a distance-time graph, the greater the __________

15.

position, zero

a horizontal line on a distance-time graph indicates that no change in ___________ is occurring, and the speed is _________

16.

velocity

____________ is the speed of an object and its direction of motion; velocity changes if either, or both, of these changes.

17.

acceleration

_____________ is a change in velocity divided by the time for the change to occur; it can include an object's speeding up, slowing down, and/or changing direction

18.

measured/calculated

acceleration can be ___________________ if you know how an object's velocity has changed during a given time period

19.

acceleration

the formula for calculating ___________________ is: acceleration = final speed - initial speed/time or a = (sf - si)/t

20.

meter per second squared

the unit of acceleration is distance divided by time squared; in SI units, acceleration is given as ______________________________ (m/s2)

21.

positive, negative

acceleration is ____________ when an object speeds up and _______________ when an object slows down

22.

plotted

acceleration motion can be _____________ with speed on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis

23.

upward

an object that is speeding up will have a line on a speed-time graph that slopes ______________

24.

downward

an object that is slowing down will have a line on a speed-time graph that slopes _______________

25.

zero

a horizontal line would indicate acceleration of _________, or constant speed.

26.

inertia

the amount of matter in an object is its mass; ____________ is the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion

27.

momentum

____________ is the measure of how hard it is to stop an object; calculated as mass times velocity

28.

momentum

with ____________ expressed as p, the equation can be written a: p = mv

29.

decreases

momentum _________________ if the mass or velocity of the object increases

30.

direction, velocity

momentum has ___________ that is the same direction as its ____________

31.

law of conservation of momentum

____________________________________ the total momentum of objects that collide with each other does not change

32.

many

there are __________ ways collisions can occur

33.

move

in one type, objects stick together and ___________ still stuck together, although possibly at different speeds

34.

momentum

in another type, two objects bounce off each other when they collide, and may transfer _____________ form one to the other

35.

total

in both cases, the __________ momentum of the objects that collide is the same before and after the collision

36.

changes position

MOTION:

occurs when an object ________ ____________

37.

reference point

MOTION:

to know that motion has occurred, you need a ______________ _______

38.

moved

DISPLACEMENT/DISTANCE:

distance is how far an object has __________

39.

meter, kilometer

DISTANCE/DISPLACEMENT:

SI unit for distance: _______ longer distances: ________

40.

distance, given amount of time

SPEED:

___________ traveled in a ________ _________ ______ _______

41.

s = d/t

CALCULATING SPEED:

what is the formula for speed?

42.

speed, distance, time

CALCULATING SPEED:

s= ___________ d= ______________ t= _________

43.

speed up, slow down

CONSTANT SPEED:

neither _______ ____ or ________ _______

44.

total distance or total time traveled

CONSTANT SPEED:

average speed is the ______ _________ ___ _______ ______ __________

45.

speed, direction

VELOCITY:

________ with _____________

(Ex: 5 km/hr west)

46.

velocity

ACCELERATION:

rate of change in ___________

47.

velocity, acceleration

ACCELERATION:

any time ____________ changes, __________________ changes

48.

positive, negative, direction

ACCELERATION:

3 ways of acceleration __________ ___________ ____________

49.

velocity, time

CALCULATING ACCELERATION:

acceleration = change in __________ divided by _________ of change

50.

push, pull

FORCE:

a __________ or _______

51.

newtons

FORCE:

unit: ______________

52.

size, direction

FORCE:

has ___________ & _______________

53.

pairs

FORCE:

forces that always act in __________

54.

equal, opposite

BALANCED FORCES:

forces that are _______ in size and ______________ in direction

55.

sum, difference

NET FORCE:

the ________ or ________________ forces

56.

unequal, opposite

UNBALANCED FORCES:

when forces are pushing in ______________ force _____________ directions

57.

direction

UNBALANCED FORCES:

net forces occurs in __________ of larger force

58.

object moves in same direction as force

WORK:

only occurs when ________ _____ _____ _______ ______________ __ _____

59.

motion, surfaces that are touching

FRICTION:

opposes ___________ between 2 __________ _________ ______ _____________

60.

sliding, rolling, fluid, static

FRICTION:

4 types of friction: __________ ___________ ____________ _____________

61.

lubricant- motor oil, wax, grease

REDUCING FRICTION:

give an example.

62.

makes surfaces rougher ( sand surfaces)

INCREASING FRICTION:

definition:

63.

mass

GRAVITY:

the force of attraction is due to _______

64.

the weight that is a measure because of the pull of gravity

GRAVITY:

definition:

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