Animal Diversity--Section 6, 7, and 8
What is a cnidocyte? Structure and Function
stinging cells located along the tentacles of cnidarians; used for defense and to capture prey
What is a cnidae?
capsule-like organelles that are capable of everting (turning inside out) and that give phlyum Cnidaria its name
What is a nematocyst?
Cnidarians are entirely aquatic and primarily marine
What is a "nerve net"?
nervous responses in cnidarians are controlled by a diffuse web of interconnected nerve cells
How do Cnidarians typically accomplish respiration? Excretion? Osmoregulation?
What are the various structures and strategies used by Cnidarians for body support?
hydrostatic skeleton and endoskeleton of carbonate spicules
How do Cnidarians typically feed? What are the advantages of extracellular digestion?
Feeding polyps. Extracellular digestion allows for a wider range of potential prey.
Describe the various forms of asexual reproduction found in Cnidarians
Budding and fission.
Most species of Cnidarians are dioecious
Pros and cons of a parasitic lifestyle?
Advantages: you live in your food, protected environment, stable environment (maybe)
Disadvantages: harder to find a mate, hosts fighting back, difficult to find a new host if yours dies
Describe the sequence of life stages and events that occur during the life cycle of a typical Hydrozoan
Includes both asexual polyp and sexual medusa stages.
What is "hexamerous symmetry"? What is "octumerous symmetry"?
Symmetry based on 6's as seen in subclass Zoantharia--Symmetry based on 8's as seen in subclass Zoantharia
Why is the clownfish/anemone symbiosis typically classified as a form of mutualism?
Because both benefit through protection.
Why are cnidarians in the order Scleratinia particularly important? What is their relationship with zooxanthellae?
Because of their stony corals.
Why are coral reefs typically restricted to shallow, tropical oceans?
deep water there is no current. that means that no food sources being bought in. in the shallow waters there is a current so that brings food in like plankton and other tiny organisms.
Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse of all ecosystems
What are the relationships between "coral bleaching", zooanthellae, and "global warming"
Corals lose zooxanthellae due to high water temperatures (global warming)
What is a common name for the phylum, Ctenophora?
What form of symmetry and how do Ctenophora move/swim?
Ctenophores are exclusively marine
List 3 differences between Ctenophora and Cnidaria
1. Cnidarians are radially symmetrical while ctenophores are either radial or biradial in their body symmetry.
2. Cnidarians have Cnidocytes to disable the prey while ctenophores have colloblasts to capture prey.
3. Digestive tract is complete in ctenophores but not in cnidarians.
Platyhelminthes and Nemertea both have the "organ system" level of organization
Platylminthes and Nemertea are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, and acoelomate
Do flatworms have complete or incomplete digestion systems?
Why do flatworms lack respiratory and circulatory systems?
because they get their oxygen through diffusion.
Are flatworms typically dioecious or monoecious?
most are monoecious.
What is penis fencing?
when two flatworms fight over who will be the male during sexual reproduction.
How do "dual gland" adhesive organs work?
Consisting of three cell types, viscid and releasing gland cells and anchor cells.
What are rhabdites?
Rod shaped cell composed of fused vesicles from the Golgi apparatus, that swell to form a protective mucous sheath around the body when discharged with water in Turbellarians and Nemertea.
How does the flame cell/protonephridia excretory system work in flatworms?
hollow cell in the excretory system of certain invertebrates, including flatworms and rotifers, containing a tuft of rapidly beating cilia that serve to propel waste products into excretory tubules.
Protonephridia in flatworms is mainly osmoregulatory and not an excretory system.
What are the basic life systems of the 4 classes of Platyhelminthes?
Trematoda, Cestoda, and Monogenea are parasitic.
Turbellaria are free living.
What is the difference between direct and indirect development of a parasite?
Direct you affect only one host throughout your life cycle while indirect you require many hosts.
What phylum typically serves as the intermediate host of Trematodes? What subphylum is the typical definitive host?
Tapeworms lack digestive system
Tapeworms definitive hosts are vertebrates
How do Nemertea typically feed?
Nemertea are typically marine and dioecious
Nemertea have a complete digestive system and have a blood-vascular system
Compare and contrast pseudocoel with a "true" coelom
It is a real cavity but is derived from blastocoel, not mesoderm (like "true coelom"
What kind of symmetry do Rotifers have?
What kind of habitat are Rotifers found in?
Rotifers are planktonic or sessile
Are Rotifers dioecious or monoecious?
Males are rarely seen in Rotifers
What kind of eggs do Rotifers produce for most of the year?
thin shelled amictic eggs
What kind of eggs do Rotifers produce in unfavorable conditions?
thin shelled haploid eggs.
Distinctive tegumental plan that is the basis for uniting trematodes, monogeneans, and cestodes in this taxon.
ciliated crown that looks like rotating wheels
thin shelled haploid
characteristic attachment organ with combo of hooks, clamps, and suckers
attached outside host
A group of glands that secrete yolk around the egg in those invertebrates, such as worms, whose eggs do not contain yolk.
Consisting of three cell types, viscid and releasing gland cells and anchor cells.
hollow cell in the excretory system of certain invertebrates, including flatworms and rotifers, containing a tuft of rapidly beating cilia
thin shelled diploid
phylum with small protozoans with bilateral symmetry and corona. Mostly planktonic or sessile. Most live in freshwater, some in marine.
The free-living form of the schistosome worm that has a tail, swims, and has suckers on its head for penetration into a host.
where a parasite resides before it moves to the primary host. Where a host is for the asexual part of the life cycle
cluster of nerve cells: a structure that contains a dense cluster of nerve cells
tapeworms) parasitic life style (endo); further reduction of organs; extensive reproductive organs; structures for attachment to hoset; divided into segments called "proglottids" (Phylum platyhelminthes)
The 3 embryonic germ layers in Platyhelminthes.
comprising animals with bilateral symmetry and three germ layers.
hard jaws at the end of mastax
elongated appendage from the head of an animal
intermediate larval stage of the flukes. each has capability to produce numerous cercariae.
host in which sexual reproduction occurs
aid in excretory function
primarily ectoparasites of fish. Usually have a direct life cycle (single host). Adults have opisthaptor (attachment organ with clamps)
phylum of invertebrate animals also known as "ribbon worms" or "proboscis worms".
phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines
the pharynx of a rotifer usually containing several horny pieces most commonly consisting of an incus and mallei
the head of a tapeworm, which has hooks and suckers to adhere to the host tissues
a larval stage of flukes which develop in the molluscan host
lives inside host's body
tegument that does not contain cilia
parasitic life style; reduced organs; extensive reproductive organs; structures for attachment to host (Phylum platyhelminthes)
Class Turbellaria (non parasitic), Trematoda, monogenea (ecto), and cestoda (all parasites).
group of microscopic, worm-like, pseudocoelomate animals, and are widely distributed and abundant in freshwater and marine environments.
an invertebrate that has a fluid-filled body cavity not lined with mesoderm tissue, e.g. a nematode or rotifer
One of the segments of a tapeworm, containing both male and female reproductive organs that break off and burst, which releases embryos
the first stage larva of a trematode, which undergoes further development in the body of a snail.
Platyhelminthes. Exclusively endoparasitic .
Rod shaped cell composed of fused vesicles from the Golgi apparatus, that swell to form a protective mucous sheath around the body when discharged with water.
free-living, non-parasitic flatworms (Phylum platyhelminthes)
type of organism: an organism with no cavity coelom between its digestive tract and outer wall, e.g. a flatworm or jellyfish
distinguishing feature is cnidocytes, specialized cells that they use mainly for capturing prey. Their bodies consist of mesoglea, a non-living jelly-like substance, sandwiched between two layers of epithelium that are mostly one cell thick. They have two basic body forms: swimming medusae and sessile polyps, both of which are radially symmetrical with mouths surrounded by tentacles that bear cnidocytes.
This is the sessile Cnidarian body form. Looks like a tree with the branches as tentacles. Mouth faces up.
An epithelial cell with an elongate base that contains contractile fibrils; common among cnidarians.
A type of asexual reproduction in some sea anemones in which parts of the pedal disc break off and are left behind as the anemone moves.
displays the simplest form of parental care when the female protects her fertilezed eggs during development on her oral arms.
A mutually beneficial relationship between different people or groups:
phylum of animals that live in marine waters worldwide. Their most distinctive feature is the "combs", groups of cilia they use for swimming, and they are the largest animals that swim by means of cilia
This is the motile Cnidarian body form. Looks like pulsating open umbrella. Mouth faces down.
form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site .
flower animals - most plant-like in shape and color
- no medusa stage
- no alternation of generations
- all are marine
form of symbiosis where both parties benefit
symmetry around a central axis, as in a starfish or a tulip flower.
A Cnidarian's cell that contains a nematocyst. A stinging cell.
employ a loose network of nerves, located in the epidermis
having both male and female.
-box jellies, bell shaped like a box
-most have only 4 tentacles
-fast swimmers & good "vision" (due to multiple ocelli all over bell)
an organ in coelenterates consisting of a minute capsule containing an ejectable thread that causes a sting.
clear, inert, jellylike substance that makes up most of the bodies of jellyfish, comb jellies
a free-swimming, ciliated, elongated, radially symmetrical larva that has distinct anterior and posterior ends but no Gastrovascular cavity
subclass of Anthozoa comprising approximately 4,300 species of aquatic organisms formed of colonial polyps generally with 6-fold symmetry.
Ctenophores lack cnidae and have these
opposite to or away from the mouth.
largest and most prevalent group of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates known. In tropical cnidarians.
Hydrozoa are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in salt water.
subclass of Anthozoa comprising around 3,000 species of water-based organisms formed of colonial polyps with 8-fold symmetry.