Human figures from a temple, Sumer, ca. 2700 BC
Style: Not realistic, body proportions are whack, modestly dressed
Historically Impt: Represents channels to god--at this time humans were less focused with themselves and were more focused on being directed towards god (big eyes #gatewaytosoul directed towards heaven)
Anavysos Kouros, Greece ca. 530 BC
Style/Visually Distinctiveness: Arms down to side, foot forward, dreadlocks hair #rasta, weird smile and almond eyes #nutty #nuttysmile #nuttyeyes also hella nakkey
Historical Importance: Shift towards self-contained human (eyes aren't up, proportions are accurate) #justme #leavinggodbehind--more exposed without clothing. More accurate depiction of the human body, step forward is working towards realistic #transitionbetweenancientandclassical #almostthere #notquite
Peplos Kore, Greece, ca. 530 BC
Archaic--dreadlocks, almond eyes, weird smile, arms to side, but NOT nakkey like her boy anavysos
Hist: Still not accurate proportions but more so than before #takesyearstogetideal Human centered, focus on earth #justher #notchanneltogod also, women still too sexy to not have shirts
"Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), POLYKLEITOS, Greece, original from 450 BC
CLASSICAL GREEK #CONTRAPPOSTO Arm bent #moreaccurate
Hist: People into bodies more than god, and bodies more than life stories (like emotions w/ Hellenistic)
Head is 1/7 of body, Polykleitos' ideal, proportions based off of golden ratio 1/1.618, more detailed body, accurate face (no weird smile, but also no expression like Hellenistic)
"Aphrodite of Knidos" PRAXITELES, Greece, original from 350 BC
Classical Greek, contrapposto, normal stance, not super expressive face, but ~accurate, also uses golden ratio 1/1.618
Naked woman got ancient greece like #wtf #instantorgasm #unfortunatelynotkidding This is first time woman's body is revealed/revered like that of a man's, but let's be real, this sculptor, he did not use an actual lady model because that bod doesn't quite look like a chick OR a dude.
Apoxyomenos (Scraper), LYSIPPOS, Greece, original from 330 BC #CanonOfLysippos
Classical Greek, head is 1/8th #Lysippospreferredit
Still contrapposto, but edging out b/c NSync pose #afterPolykleitos
Very focused on the human body and it's ideal--still focused on bodies, before emotions took center stage (hellenistic), and after god channel (ancient)--also after archaic #lessaccurate
"Seated Boxer" Greece, 100 BC
Hellenistic--not Contrapposto, more emotion conveyed than just Classical. This is an original--Bronze #superrare
ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF RHODES, "Laocoön and his sons", Greece, 0
Hellenistic, very emotional face/pose, HELLA DRAMA, many aspects #snakes
Bust of a Roman Senator, ca. 100 BC
Veristic Roman--not ideal, but an accurate depiction of imperfect older man #wrinkles
Hist: Shows how Romans respected age and wisdom. Ancestor worship was important aka need very accurate representation of person--in the past masks for funerals were identical. (P sure this was distinctively Roman thing that later got mixed in with Greek styles.)
Prima Porta Augustus, ca. 20 BC
Imperial Roman--mix of Greek Classical #contrapposto and ideal (Caesar is not this young), and Hellenistic Greek #chestplatesuchdrama #brothercupid (more than just the body, story told)
Actually looks like Augustus, which came out of Roman Verism, yet shift from accuracy to ideal (Augustus said he was part god #perfect) Also back to liking young, shift from old #wisdom
Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), ca. 10 BC
Built of field of Mars, previous battle ground, now holy place for peace
Greek style #highclass #sophisticated,
This is tied to Augustus because of his peace, he won the civil war against Marc Anthony and brought peace so made this big altar of peace #connectedtohim
Procession of the imperial family, from the Ara Pacis Augustae, ca. 10 BC
~weird that there are kids in the work--want to encourage procession of patricians #needkids The plebians are having more kids and thus there was concern that they would outnumber/overpower the future patricians.
Augustus was family values emperor, also depicted the family as perfect, higher #thinkJFK and therefore Imperial style.
Vespacian, ca. 75 AD
Swing back towards Verism, not trying to be young/ideal, unlike Julio-Claudians
Followed Nero, who made Golden Palace for himself. Vespacian destroyed it and built the Colosseum on top, a place for the people. Well liked, refreshing from the Julio-Claudian reign of #JFK's (Vespacian part of Flavians, i.e. new dynasty)
The Colosseum, ca. 80 AD
On top of Nero's Golden Palace, made by Vespacian,
Public arena for gladiators and lion fighting, pleased people--nice break from self-indulgent Nero
Ionic (bit more eye-catching)
Corinthian (HOLY CRAP fun designs)
Doric of bottom
Corinthian on top
Trajan, ca. 100 AD
Swing back again towards more imperial b/c less realistic, revisit ideal #classical with the basically contrapposto and extravagant clothing. Face is less detailed and not wrinkled like Vespacian
Trajan was mature, competent and had earned his position. He knew his stuff
Antonine reign, he took over after Flavians crumble from Dimisian and returned more to what it was before Vespacian, like Julio-Claudian with valuing JFK high class, ideal rulers. ??TRUE?
Column of Trajan ca. 110 AD
Comic strip styles of all the battles, not visible to top but the presence made it awe worthy.
Forum of Trajan, ca. 110 AD
Forum brought people together, was a congregating place with a courthouse and temple. The column was inside the forum.
APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, Markets of Trajan, ca. 110 AD
Shopping mall with many layers, feat of apollodorus, again was liked by people because all in one place #thismakessense
Hadrian, ca. 135 AD
Somewhat fussy b/c bearded, greek-like #sophisticated #hipster #muchfashion
adopted by Trajan and therefore successor. good military leader
Hadrian? Apollodorus of Damascus? Pantheon, ca. 120 AD
Temple for all the gods
Very innovative design for the ancient world. TRUE FACT BROUGHT TO YOU BY DUFFEYG: THIS DOME is made of different sorts of concrete in layers of increasing thinness but same strength as you go up. THEM ROMANS AND THEY CONCRETE FAM IT'S LEGIT
Oculus=center top hole
Antinous, ca. 130 AD
Boy lover of Hadrian because Hadrian wanted to be Greek so damn bad
Died at 19 (drown in Nile) and Hadrian commissioned hella statues--most common statue EVER
Valerian and Shapur, Iran, ca. 280 AD
Iranian relief sculpture
Valerian went to Persians to defend. Instead captured, executed, taxadermied and used as footstool to Persians, making people freak out--clear sign that the Roman Empire's done, son, and Persia is making Rome its b****.
Constantine, Rome, ca. 330
Early Christian, soul portrait, more spiritual than human. Upward gaze=focus on god. Archaic-ish focus and eyes--back to worshipful role for person. Yet distinct identity? (Am I making this up rn??) Was huge #closetogod.. or #justbelowgod Pious, yet grand. Is this guy really holy, or haughty? OR BOTH?
Constantine overpowers the tetrarch and get's to be ~emperor again, united to make this massive statue
Ceiling of a cubiculum in the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, early fourth century
Early Christian, orant position while praying, fresco painting on ceiling NOT MOSAIC
Stories from Bible--not everybody could read, but people can see, so depictions of scenes--becomes bigger deal later on with icons. Here--Jonah part of many Catacombs b/c 3 days in belly of whale, ~resurrection of J.C.
ANTHEMIUS and ISIDORUS, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, ca. 535 AD
Early Christian, Byzantine, now a mosque, dome illusion of floating, taking floor mosaic idea from Rome and putting mosaic on ceiling #revolutionary
Christ Pantokrator, Egypt, 6th c. AD
Icon, equally powerful as scripture to show people God. Beginning of beard--inspired painting.
Shows both blesser (hand) and rule giver (book)
Hodegetria, c. 1500, Russia
Icon, powerful, "One who points the way", shows Mary as guide to Christ, mother of Christ, as she literally points to her kid like "check out this guy"
Equestrian Statue of Charlemagne, France, c. 800
Carolingian, had to start again since much skill was lost (clearly) when barbarians overrruled west. Trying to copy equestrian statue from way back, and... yeah they get a gold star for trying?
Lorsch Gatehouse, Germany, c. 800
Based off of similar Roman ones, not exactly esp. b/c so far away. Again, gold star for trying? #attemptedtbt
Bible of Charles the Bald, Germany, ca. 850 AD
Battle of Tours 732 AD
Standardized writing=much better comm within H.R.E.
still carolingian font
Whole thing=cruciform plan
Top chapel=apsidal chapel
Altar at front=apse
St. Sernin Toulouse, France, c. 1100
Romanesque, 1 spire, no buttresses.
St. Sernin, Toulouse, France, c. 1100
Curved arches on vaulted ceiling
Narrow bc no flying buttresses, and few windows for same reason.
Notre Dame, Paris, c. 1200
Long, spindly flying buttresses, which MEANS you can put more weighty things in walls--LIKE STAINED GLASS YAY
2 front things (not finished)
Notre Dame, Paris, c. 1200
Best flying buttresses EVAR
Reims Cathedral, France, c. 1250
Pointed arches, so many windows and able to put weight on walls
Reims Cathedral, France, c. 1250
LOOK AT THESE WINDOWS
LOOK AT THEM
Head Reliquary of Charlemagne, Germany, c. 1350
Chopped up already buried body and put into golden containers (reliquaries)