Exercise 11: The Appendicular Skeleton
raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches
bones of the shoulder girdle
scapular region to which the clavicle connects
shoulder girdle bone that is unattached to the axial skeleton
shoulder girdle bone that articulates with and transmits forces to the bony thorax
depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerous
process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment
distal condyle of the humerus that articulates with the ulna
medial bone of forearm in anatomical position
rounded knob on the humerus; adjoins the radius
anteriar depression, superior to the trochlea, which receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed
forearm bone involved in formation of the elbow joint
heads of these bones form the knuckles
bones that articulate with the clavicle
Clavicle serves as an anterior base or strut to hold the arm away from the top of the thorax
How is the arm held clear of the widest dimension of the thoracic cage?
What is the total number of phalanges in the hand?
What is the total number of carpals in the wrist?
Name the carpals (medial to lateral) in the proximal row.
In the distal row, they are (medial to lateral)
The humerus is a (right/left) bone in (an anterior/a posterior) view.
The radius and ulna are (right/left) bones in (an anterior/a posterior) view.
flexibility most important; lightweight; insecure axaial and limb attachments
massive; secure axail and limb attachments; weight-bearing most important
Uterus, bladdar, rectum, small intestine, and reproductive organs
What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle?
The true pelvis is small bowl-like shape containing the unrinary bladder and sexual organs. The false pelvis is the area been the alla or wings of the pelvis. This is a much larger area and contains some of the abdominal organs like part of the small intestine and part of the colon.
What is the difference between the true pelvis and the false pelvis?
Female; It is adapted for childbearing, defines birth canal, Farther apart then a males, the sacrum is wider, shorter and less curved then a males. The pelvic inlet (brim) is wider; oval from side to side.
This is a (female/male) pelvis because?
The pelvic bones of a two-legged animal such as a human have to carry his whole weight, divided by two. A four-legged animal such as a pig divides its weight over four legs, so each leg and each pelvic bone has to bear only a fourth of the animal's weight. As the strain on the bones is a half than in the two-legged case, the bones can be less massive.
Deduce why the pelvis bones of a four-legged animal such as a cat or pig are less massive than those of the human.
To prevent a smaller target and also to protect the internal organs and genitalia.
A person instinctively curls over his abdominal area in times of danger. Why?
Biologically, women have wider pelvises than men. The angle of their hips turn the legs slightly inward, making some to actually touch at the knees.
For what anatomical reason do many women appear to be slightly knock-kneed?
they can be more prone to knee related injuries, such as ACL tears due to high intensity straight knee landing or impact since the knee is already in a weak position.
How might this anatomical arrangement contribute to knee injuries in female athletes?
It mean flat feet or flat footed
What does fallen arches mean?
fuse to form the coxal bone
illium, ischium, pubis
"sit-down" bone of the coxal bone
point where the coxal bones join anteriorly
superiormost margin of the coxal bone
deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone
joint between axaial skeleton and pelvic girdle
longest, strongest bone in the body
thin lateral leg bone
heavy medial leg bone
bones forming knee joint
femur, tibia, patella
point where the patellar ligament attaches
medial ankle projection
lateral ankle projection
largest tarsal bone
bones forming the instep of the foot
opening in hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami
sites of muscle attachment on the proximal femur
gluteal tuberosity, greater and lesser trochanters
tarsal bone that "sits" on the calcaneus
weight-bearing bone of the leg
tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia
The femur is a (right/left) bone in (an anterior/a posterior) view.
The tibia and fibula are (right/left) bones in (an anterior/a posterior) view.