Ch. 28 Reproductive & Ch. 29 Development
The structure protects and regulates the temperature of the testes?
This structure is the site of sperm production?
How many seminiferous tubules are found in the lobules?
These cells may eventually become spermatozoa?
These cells secrete testosterone?
This hormone stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone?
This straight tubules in the testis lead into the?
The function of the epididymis is?
This is formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the vas deferens
This lies posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum and secretes an alkaline, fructose filled fluid?
These are located inferior to the prostate on the other side of the membranous urethra within the deep muscles of the perineum?
This is composed of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue each surrounded by a fibrous tissue?
This ligament arises from the pubic symphysis in males?
Secondary oocytes, Estrogen, and Progesterone
What is produced by the ovaries?
This attaches the ovaries and uterus to the pelvic wall?
This is the site of fertilization?
This is the portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina?
Anterior to the vagina and urethral opening is the?
Skene's glands secrete?
_______hormone secreted by the _______ controls the ovarian and uterine cycles?
This hormone promotes spermatogenesis?
This hormone triggers ovulation?
This is secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation?
This is the uterine phase when the endometrium becomes more vascular?
This is the ovarian phase between the end of the menstruation and beginning of ovulation?
Fertilization normally occurs within which structure?
This is a series of functional changes that sperm go through when they are in the female reproductive tract?
The fusion of the secondary oocyte and the sperm results in which developmental stage?
This is the part of the blastocyst that promotes implantation and produces hCG?
This is the portion of the endometrium that lies between the embryo and the stratum basalis?
This develops from the epiblast and carries a protective fluid?
Chorionic villi of the placenta
This will become the primary structure for exchange of material between the mother the fetus?
Each somite may differentiate into a?
This is the connection between the placenta and the embryo?
How many pairs of pharyngeal arches are there?
This exam is performed between 14-16 weeks gestation and is used to detect genetic abnormalities?
CVS is taking cells from where?
This hormone is secreted by non-pregnant women from secretory cells in the hypothalamus?
During pregnancy stroke volume can increase by?
Labor can NOT take place until all of this hormone's effects are diminished?
Stage of dilation
This is the time from the onset of labor to the complete dilation of the cervix?
The uterus decreases in size
Involution is when?
In infants this connects the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava?
This is a principle hormone that releases milk into the mammary ducts?
This is a permanent change in an allele?
When phenotype can be drastically different depending on parental origin it is called?
An example of incomplete dominance is?
AB, A, B, and O
If one parent has type A blood and one parent has type B blood, what blood type is possible for their child?
B, O or AB
If a child has B blood, and the mother has B blood, what is the possible genotype of the father?
Chromosome #15 is considered what?
An inactivated X chromosome
A Barr body is?
Produce gametes and produce hormones
What is the function of gonads?
Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into?
Gonads & external genitalia, Ducts that receive & transport the gametes, and Accessory glands & organs that secrete fluids
The reproductive system includes?
Both the Cremaster & the Dartos
Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the?
A bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis
The spermatic cord is?
The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the?
The make reproductive system is MOST closely associated with which of the following systems?
The _______ connects the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis?
Pulls the testes closer to the body cavity
Contraction of the cremaster muscles?
Elevates the scrotal sac
Contraction of the dartos muscle?
Sperm develop from stem cells called?
When spermatogonia divide, the daughter cells are called?
The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by the first meiosis are called?
The process of spermiogenesis produces?
The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called?
23 duplicates of chromosomes
Secondary spermatocytes each contain?
The acrosome is next to the nucleus, and the head contains 23 chromosomes
In a mature human spermatozoan?
During meiosis I, maternal and paternal chromosomes fuse together during the process called ________ to form a ________.
How many tetrads form during synapsis?
Secondary spermatocytes divide to produce ________ spermatids having ________ chromosomes each.
The daughter cell is directed toward the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
Interstitial cells produce?
Sperm production occurs in the?
Are found in the seminiferous tubules, Form the blood-testis barrier, and Coordinate spermatogenesis.
4, 1, 3, 2
Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which
sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
1. ductus deferens
3. ejaculatory duct
The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the?
Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the?
The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the?
The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the?
The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the?
seminal glands (seminal vesicles)
The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the?
in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct
Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
production of spermatozoa.
Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except?
Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by?
Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in?
There must be sufficient blood hydrostatic pressure, The sacral spinal cord must be intact, and Nitric oxide must be present.
For erection to occur?
The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the?
The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the?
The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the?
The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the?
Occurs under sympathetic stimulation, Begins with peristaltic contractions of the ampulla, Is responsible for propelling semen into the female reproductive tract and Involves contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle
Emission and ejaculation?
initiate sperm production in the testes.
The primary role of FSH in males is to?
The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is?
Testosterone is secreted by the?
Increased sex drive, Decreased levels of GnRH, and Decreased levels of LH and FSH
A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will?
the process of capacitation involves the removal of some inhibiting substances from the sperm.
Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that?
The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following, except that they?
Are found in the areolar tissue between the tubules, Respond to luteinizing hormone, and Produce testosterone
an extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.
The broad ligament is?
The region where blood vessels enter the ovary is called the?
About half the oogonia complete mitosis between birth and puberty
Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that?
The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete?
This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation?
The primary follicle develops from the?
the number of primordial follicles in the ovaries at birth
Which of the following is greater?
The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the?
The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the?
The inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the?
The thick muscular layer of the uterus is the?
Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?
The ________ is the rounded portion of the uterine body superior to the attachment of the uterine tubes.
The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the?
has ciliated epithelium
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term uterine tube?
The average length of the uterine cycle is?
the functional zone of the endometrium is restored.
During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?
consists of a basilar zone and a functional zone
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
loses a portion of its lining during menses.
All of the following are true of the vagina, except that it
a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia.
The vagina is?
The vulva includes all of the following, except the?
The space bounded by the labia minora is the?
Fatty folds of skin that encircle and partially conceal the labia minora and vestibule are the?
Is derived from the same embryonic structures as the penis in males, Engorges with blood during sexual arousal, Is topped by a small erectile glans, and Contains erectile tissue comparable to the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
The ________ is the region of the vagina that surrounds the cervix.
female external genitalia.
Another term for vulva is?
The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the?
The production of milk is called?
The fertilized ovum implants, Progesterone levels are high, Endometrial glands are enlarged, and The corpus luteum is formed
During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle?
the old functional layer is sloughed off.
During the menses?
The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is?
The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is?
Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of?
The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers?
A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for?
Secretion of hormones, Production of oocytes, Formation of immature gametes, and Secretion of inhibin
Which is the function of the ovaries?
A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in?
Both estrogen and progesterone
After ovulation, the ovary secretes?
the secretory phase
A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
may develop in response to testosterone or estrogen.
Secondary sexual characteristics?
stimulates spermatogenesis and stimulates maturation of primordial follicles in the ovary.
first day of menses
On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
more than a day later.
After fertilization, the first cell division is completed?
the male and female pronuclei fuse.
completion of Meiosis I
Which of the following is not part of fertilization?
The individual cells produced by cleavage are called
The gradual modification of anatomical structures during the period from conception to maturity is
Oocyte activation, Completion of the second meiosis, Membrane fusion, and Extrusion of the second polar body
Contact of a sperm with the oocyte membrane causes
A doubling of blastomere number, A division of the cytoplasm into two portions, and Interphase
Completion of cytokinesis leads to?
the first trimester is when the fetus looks distinctively human.
Each of the following statements concerning development is true, except that?
break down and form lacunae.
Under the influence of the trophoblast, maternal blood vessels in the endometrium?
A space opens within the inner cell mass that will form the?
The process of cell division that divides the cytoplasm of the zygote among blastomeres is called?
Attachment to and penetration of the endometrium by the blastocyst is referred to as?
________ are nearly identical cells that are produced by early cleavages?
The solid ball of cells that has been likened to a mulberry is called a?
hollow ball of cells.
A blastocyst is a(n)?
form the embryo.
The inner cell mass of the blastocyst will?
syncytial trophoblast erodes a path through the endometrium.
During implantation, the?
is derived from the inner cell mass
Which of these statements about the trophoblast is false?
three germ layers are formed.
migration of ectodermal cells to form the mesoderm
The region known as the primitive streak is the site of?
The ectoderm forms?
The mesoderm forms?
the urinary bladder.
The endoderm forms?
The trophoblast has many of the characteristics of ________ cells.
By day 12 of embryonic development, mesoderm begins to form through?
The oval, three-layered sheet produced by gastrulation is called the ________.
nervous system; muscular system
Ectoderm is to ________ as mesoderm is to ________.
The mesoderm and the trophoblast combine to form the
The extraembryonic membrane that forms blood cells is the
The extraembryonic membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac is the?
it acts as the fetal bone marrow.
All of the following are true of the allantois, except that
Which of these is not one of the extraembryonic membranes?
Cleavage, Implantation, Placentation, and Gastrulation
Which of the following is one of the critical events of the first trimester?
The hormone that increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy is?
hCG, Relaxin, Progesterone, and Placental lactogen
The placenta is a source of which of these hormones?
corpus luteum; human chorionic gonadotrophin
If fertilization occurs, the ________ is maintained because the embryo secretes ________.
The period of gestation when the rudiments of all major organ systems are established is the ________ trimester
The period of gestation that is characterized by the largest fetal weight gain and fat deposition is the ________ trimester.
The period of gestation when organs and organ systems complete most of their development and the fetus looks distinctly human is the ________ trimester.
Embryological and early fetal development occur in the ________ trimester.
A woman's bladder capacity increases.
All of the following occur during pregnancy, except that?
During gestation, contraction of the myometrium is inhibited by ________, produced by the placenta.
The first stage of labor is the ________ stage.
The stage of labor during which the fetus emerges from the vagina is called the ________ stage.
Stretching of the cervix causes an increase in the blood levels of
Rising estrogen levels increase sensitivity, Rising oxytocin levels lead to uterine contractions, Distortion of the myometrium, and Distortion of the cervix
Progesterone calms the myometrium and prevents contraction. What factors antagonize progesterone and trigger labor and delivery?
stimulate smooth muscle contractions.
The prostaglandins produced in the endometrium?
for the first month of life.
The neonatal period extends?
The infancy stage of life is considered to be over at?
GnRH levels decline.
All of the following occur at puberty, except that?
Which of these hormones is the cause of most puberty related changes in a female?
accelerated bone deposition and skeletal growth
Which of these is a puberty related change caused by increased testosterone levels?
Non-sex chromosomes are called?
The alternate forms of any one gene are called?
If an individual carries a pair of alleles that are the same, the individual is ________ for the trait.
If an individual carries two different alleles for the same trait, the individual is ________ for the trait.
a single pair of alleles.
In simple autosomal inheritance, phenotypic characters are determined, or controlled, by?
determined by interactions among several genes.
In polygenic inheritance, phenotypic characters are?
If a color-blind (X-linked recessive trait) man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait, what proportion of their male offspring can be expected to be color blind?