A&P II Chapter 26
A)regulating blood pressure.B)excreting waste products.C)secreting a hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells.D)maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and pH.E)all of the above
Functions of the urinary system include
Feedback: A nephron and collecting duct is the smallest unit capable of forming urine.
Which of the following is the smallest unit of the urinary system capable of forming urine?
vBlood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit the kidney through what structure?
Of the layers of tissue that surround the kidney, which layer is a fibrous connective tissue?
cushions the kidney from mechanical shock.
The layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the renal capsule
The layer that holds the kidney in place within the abdominal cavity is called the
Feedback: The inner region of the kidney that appears to contain striated triangles (i.e. the renal pyramids) is called the renal medulla.
The inner region of the kidney that appears to contain striated triangles (i.e. the renal pyramids) is called the
Feedback: Nephrons run through the cortex and medulla.
Nephrons are found running through which two layers of the kidney?
The apexes of the renal pyramids are called renal
glomerulus; renal tubule
In addition to the blood vessels, the nephron consists of two other principal parts, the ______ where the fluid is filtered and a ______ into which the filtered fluid passes.
Feedback: The efferent arteriole drains blood from the glomerulus.
The _____ drains blood from the glomerular capillaries.
loop of Henle
Which of the following descend into the medulla?
glomerulus-glomerular capsule-proximal tubules-loop of Henle-distal tubules-collecting duct-renal pelvis
Trace the flow of filtrate formation to urine in the renal pelvis.
Feedback: Podocytes wrap pedicels around the glomerular capillaries.
What are the cells called that wrap pedicels around the glomerular capillaries?
Feedback: Kidneys do not contain a layer of smooth muscle.
Which of the following does NOT contain a smooth muscle layer?
The kidney lies on the dorsal wall of the ______ cavity.
Feedback: The outermost layer or covering of an organ is the adventitia.
The most superficial covering of the urinary bladder on the posterior and inferior surface is the
transport urine from the renal pelvis into the urinary bladder
What is the principal function of the ureter?
hydrostatic pressure.B)gravity.C)peristaltic contractions.D)All the above.
Urine moves down the ureters by way of
What structure receives urine flowing down the ureters?
The small tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body is the
What is the terminal portion of the urinary system?
A)contains no smooth muscle.B)varies in size depending on how full it is.C)has a capacity of approximately 10 ml.D)Both B and C.
The urinary bladder
Feedback: The small triangular area in the floor of the urinary bladder that does not expand much during filling is the trigone.
The small triangular area in the floor of the urinary bladder that does not expand much during filling is the
Feedback: The external urethra sphincter is composed of skeletal muscle.
Which of the following is composed of skeletal muscle?
discharge of semen and urine
In the male what functions does the urethra serve?
Feedback: Blood flow through the renal arteries is cardiac output (5600 ml/min) x 21 % = approximately 1200 ml/min.
How much blood enters the renal arteries per minute?
Where does the first step in the production of urine occur?
A large amount of passive water reabsorption follows active Na+ reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubules.
In the kidneys, the largest volume of water reabsorption occurs in which of the following?
Feedback: The largest volume of glucose reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubules.
In the kidneys, the largest volume of glucose reabsorption occurs in which of the following?
Feedback: The negatively charged ions are passively reabsorbed down an electrical gradient created by movement of positively charged ions, especially sodium ions.
Which of the following determines the rate of chloride reabsorption in the kidney?
There are three basic renal processes for urine formation. Which of the following is NOT one of these processes?
Feedback: Net filtration pressure is the difference between the forces favoring filtration (50 mm Hg) and forces opposing the filtration (40 mm Hg).
In glomerular filtration, what is the normal value for net filtration pressure?
Feedback: Glucose in the urine (glycosuria) is a clinical sign of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
Which of the following filtered substances is NOT present in normal urine?
Feedback: Hydrostatic pressure forces plasma out of the glomerular capillaries and into Bowman's capsule to form filtrate.
Filtration of blood in the glomeruli is promoted by
Feedback: Small proteins, like albumin, that pass into the filtrate from the glomerulus are usually reabsorbed by endocytosis.
Small proteins, like albumin, that pass into the filtrate from the glomerulus are usually reabsorbed by
the loop of Henle.
The concentration of solutes in tubular fluid is greatest in
Feedback: The smaller size of glucose allows it to pass from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule the easiest.
Which of the following would pass from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule most easily?
Feedback: The reabsorption of most bicarbonate ions occurs in the proximal tubule.
Normally most filtered bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed in the
A)facilitated diffusionB)symtransportC)antiportD)Both A and B.
The reabsorption of glucose and amino acids is mediated by
)NaClB)ureaC)uric acidD)both A and B
What solutes contribute to the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid in the renal medulla?
Feedback: Urea is a metabolic breakdown product of proteins and amino acids.
Which of the following is derived from amino acids and can be found in urine?
Feedback: Renin is manufactured by the kidney's juxtaglomerular cells in response to reduced blood pressure.
The kidney secretes a hormone that triggers a cascade that regulates blood Na+ and blood pressure. It is called
The kidney has a built-in system to maintain a stable glomerular filtration rate and compensate for moderate changes in systemic arterial pressure for a short period of time. What is the name of this system?
Feedback: Hypotonic urine occurs when blood electrolyte levels are low, blood volume is high, and levels of antidiuretic hormone are low.
Urine that is hypotonic to blood plasma are produced when
Feedback: Angiotensinogen is a plasma protein produced by the liver.
Angiotensinogen is produced by the
Vasopressin (ADH) acts at the level of the basolateral membrane in the distal tubules and _____________.
increase the urine flow
How do diuretics affect the urine?
A)very dilute urineB)extreme thirstC)decrease in ADHD)all the above
How can you tell if your patient has diabetes insipidus?
Feedback: The most common cause of glucose in the urine is untreated diabetes mellitus, in which the transport maximum for glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule is exceeded.
The most common cause of glucose in the urine is untreated diabetes mellitus, in which the
more potassium is excreted in the urine.
If the level of aldosterone in the blood increases, then
Feedback: If a substance is filtered but not reabsorbed or secreted its renal clearance rate equals the GFR.
If a substance is readily filtered but not reabsorbed or secreted its renal clearance rate
Feedback: Renal threshold equals plasma concentration at which reabsorption mechanisms are saturated and the molecule appears in urine.
Renal threshold equals
Feedback: If a substance has exceeded its transport maximum (Tmax) in the kidney tubules, it is likely that the concentration of the substance in the blood would become unusually high.
If a substance has exceeded its transport maximum (Tmax) in the kidney tubules, it is likely that
Feedback: Inulin is filtered, but neither secreted nor reabsorbed.
The reason insulin is used to determine glomerular filtration rate is because it is
Feedback: In plasma clearance, substances must not be metabolized by the kidneys.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of substances that are used to measure plasma clearance?
Tubular load for glucose may exceed tubular maximum for glucose.
Which of the following may occur in patients with severe diabetes mellitus?
A bladder containing _____ml of urine could be close to bursting point in an average-sized human.
What is the term for elimination of urine from the urinary bladder?
Feedback: Kidney stones contain uric acid, calcium, and magnesium.
What are some common constituents of kidney stones (renal calculi)?
Feedback: Parasympathetic stimulation causes increased peristalsis in the ureters.
Which of the following would increase the frequency of peristaltic contractions in the ureters?
500ml of urine
At about what volume of urine does the bladder create strong action potentials to be sent to the spinal cord and a sensation of discomfort?
Which of the following areas of the brain are involved with the voluntary initiation of micturition?
Feedback: Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the renal pelvis.
Pyelonephritis relates to which of the following?
Feedback: It is an inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Cystitis relates to which of the following?