chapter 22 the respitory system
Air moves into the lungs because __________.
A) the volume of the lungs decreases with inspiration
b) contraction of the diaphragm decreases the volume of the pleural cavity
c) the thorax is muscular
d)the internal intercostal muscles decrease the thoracic cavity volume
e)the gas pressure in the lungs becomes lower than the outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts
Alveolar ventilation rate is __________.
a) the movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood
b) less than the pulmonary ventilation rate because of dead space
c)the utilization of oxygen by alveolar cells to support metabolism
d) the movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the alveoli
e) the movement of air into and out of the alveoli during a particular time
Hemoglobin has a tendency to release oxygen where __________.
a)partial pressures of oxygen are higher
b) temperature is lower
C) pH is more acidic
d) partial pressures of carbon dioxide are lower
e) pH is more alkaline
In the alveoli, the partial pressure of oxygen is __________.
a) lower than the PO2 of venous blood
b) the same as the PO2 of venous blood.
c) about 104 mm Hg
d) equal to that in the tissues
e) much higher than the PO2 of arterial blood
Most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood is __________.
a) bound to the same protein as carbon dioxide
b) dissolved in plasma bound to hemoglobin
c) carried by white blood cells
d) converted to bicarbonate ions and transported in plasma
The elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the __________.
b) cricoid cartilage
c) corniculate cartilage
d) cuneiform cartilage
e) thyroid cartilage
The movement of air into and out of the lungs is called __________.
c) external respiration
d) pulmonary ventilation
e) cellular respiration
This tissue lines the trachea.
a) hyaline cartilage
b) simple squamous epithelium
c) pseudostratified columnar epithelium
d) stratified squamous epithelium
e) areolar connective tissue
Which respiratory measurement is normally the greatest?
a) tidal volume
a) residual volume
b) expiratory reserve volume
c) vital capacity
Which respiratory structure has the smallest diameter?
a) secondary bronchi
Involuntary hyperventilation during an anxiety attack can cause the person to become faint because of __________.
a) decreased O2 levels in the blood, causing cells to lack enough ATP
b)increased CO2 levels caused by increase in cellular respiration, reducing brain perfusion and causing ischemia
c) effects of increased O2 levels in the blood and consequent constriction of cerebral blood vessels
d)increased temperature caused by increased intercostal muscle activity
e)lowered CO2 levels in the blood and consequent constriction of cerebral blood vessels
Which of the following gases has no effect in the blood until hyperbaric conditions occur (as in SCUBA diving) and can form bubbles in blood when one comes to the surface too quickly?
b) carbon monoxide
d) carbon dioxide
Which of the following terms describes the increase in depth and force of breathing that occurs during vigorous exercise?
Approximately 20% of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as __________.
a) hydrogen ions
d) dissolved gas in the plasma
e) bicarbonate ions
Which of the following controls the respiratory rate?
b) spinal cord
c) cerebral cortex
d) alveolar sacs
Which of the following is NOT a function of the conducting zone?
a) mucous secretion
b) gas exchange
c) transport of air
d) cleansing of air
e) warming of air
Which of the following statements about voice production is INCORRECT?
a) The glottis is wide when deep tones are produced.
b) Loudness of voice depends on the size of the vocal cords.
c) The larynx enlarges in males during puberty.
d) The more tense the vocal cords, the higher the pitch.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the trachealis muscle?
a) It helps expel mucus during coughing.
b) It prevents the trachea from collapsing and keeps it patent, despite the pressure changes that take place during breathing.
c) It allows the esophagus to expand anteriorly when food is swallowed.
d)It decreases its diameter during expiration to expel air with a greater force.
An example of an enzyme located in the lung capillary membrane that acts on material in the blood is __________.
d) angiotensin converting enzyme
__________ pressure keeps the air spaces in the lung open.
Which of the following conditions would NOT cause atelectasis?
a) loss of lung elasticity
b) a chest wound that perforates the pleura and allows air into the pleural cavity
c) plugging of bronchioles
Airway resistance is insignificant in relationship to gas flow because __________.
a) the airways branch more as they get smaller, resulting in a huge total cross-sectional area
b) the gas flow stops in the medium-sized bronchioles and diffusion takes over; therefore, airway resistance is no longer an issue
c) the blood flow is very high in comparison to the viscosity of air
d) the airway resistance is not related to the diameter of the conducting tubes
The transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the __________ and the __________ pressure.
a) intrapulmonary; intrapleural
b) atmospheric; intrapulmonary
c) atmospheric; intrapleural
d) intrapleural; alveolar
Which of the following conditions would NOT decrease the total respiratory compliance?
a) increase in lung compliance
b) calcification of the coastal cartilages
c) thorax deformities
c) paralysis of the intercostal muscles
Which of the following nonrespiratory movements would ventilate all of the alveoli?
All of the following would be caused by breathing excessively high concentrations of oxygen for a long period, EXCEPT __________.
b) production of huge amounts of free radicals
d) oxygen toxicity
Which of the following nonrespiratory movements is caused by irritation of the diaphragm?
The dorsal respiratory group __________.
a) is located dorsally at the root of cranial nerve IX
b) extends from the brain stem
c) ends at the pons-medullary junction
d) is a rhythm-generating center
The pontine respiratory group is responsible for all of the following functions, EXCEPT __________.
a) regulating and modifying the activity of the medullary neurons
b) stimulating the contraction of the diaphragm
c) smoothing out the transition from inspiration to expiration
d) causing apneustic breathing if it is damaged
Which of the following would NOT be found in a "blue bloater"?
a) right-sided heart failure
b) weight loss
c) pulmonary hypertension